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Full text of "Editor's reference book on cement and concrete, 1927 edition."

m 



Editor's 





on Cement **& Concrete 




JUt 16 



To the Editor: 

This booklet is a reference work. Your business, 
automobile, financial and building page writers will 
find it exceptionally valuable. Nowhere else can you 
obtain such a handy compilation of the authoritative 
statistics presented herein. 

Whenever there is a news story to be written re- 
garding a concrete road, a concrete bridge, or a con- 
crete public building, this booklet will be of great aid 
in providing supplementary facts. 

Whenever editorials must be prepared regarding 
road and street paving policies or other public improve- 
ments, you will find most illuminating data that will 
assist you to comment accurately and interestingly. 

Ready reference tables on road mileages, highway 

maintenance costs, cement production and use, as well 

as many other facts of value to newspapers, are printed 
here. 



Save the booklet. You will find it valuable. 






; 



i 



Portland Cement Association 

A National Organization to Improve and Extend 

the Uses of Concrete 

33 West Grand Avenue 

CHICAGO 






OFFICES IN 31 CITIES 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Cement Manufac 

Kilns hotter than volcanoes 



Page 

3 

"Portland cement" not a trade name g 

The story of cement in America ^ 

How portland cement is made. ^ 

Use of portland cement per capita - ^ 

United States leads in cement making. 

Production, shipments and stocks of portland cement ■£ 

Is it a cement or a concrete walk? - - . • 2 . 

SuDolies needed by the portland cement industry . ... ....... 

Location of portland cement plants in U. S Ins.de back cover 



Concrete Construction 



5 



Early Romans experimented with concrete, 

Modern concrete stronger than early Roman product ^ 

How portland cement is used . . j g 

Forecast strength of concrete 22 

Building in winter. . 23 

Buying concrete by telephone 25 

Saving time with concrete 

Concrete Products 24 

Use one million tons of concrete pipe ' ' ^q 

Concrete masonry building ' ^3 

Lighting the street 

Portland Cement Association 4 

Good sources for news • • j <j 

The Portland Cement Association ^ 

Association has own laboratory. * j y 

Cement industry conducts schools • - j g 

Cement makers reduce accidents * ^ 

Stabilizing advertising ' ^ 

Free mat service 

Structures u 24 

Streams still get most of nation s sewage • • • - • • 

Newspapers may help cities get swimming pools and stadia |J 

Trains may run on concrete roadbeds • • • ?R 

Burned out Astoria rebuilds with buildings that won t burn *° 

Fire losses grow • ^ j 

Recent concrete structures of interest. ^4 

Art in concrete 54 

Newspapers build model homes *'"'•*'-' SS 

House plans furnished by Portland Cement Association 

Highway Traffic 1 • 3 7 

Good roads bring increase in newspaper circulation 

Build automobiles faster than roads. ' ' ' ' Q1 ' ' 38 

Motor vehicle registrations for 1924 and '^25. . . 

Ancient toll roads cost more than best roads of today. ... ■ • . ^ 

Salesmen travel cheaper by automobile '45 

Gasoline tax and automobile license fee • . • ^ 

Giving the gasoline horse a bettei road. ^ 

Horses pull loads easier on conciete- - ? 

Motor car and road costs, . . r^ 

Tire wear less on concrete. 

Roads and Streets 39 

Build pavements thicker at the edge • ~q 

Federal aid in road building .q 

Federal aid projects completed ... 40 

Concrete streets increase *j 

A mile of concrete road 44 

Concrete is skid-proof * 

Concrete pavement upkeep Iovn .~ 

Total mileage of roads rn 

Missouri invests in paved roads . • 

I Print in A > 



Kilns Hotter Than Volcanoes 



EVERY now and then some one 
comes forth with an announce- 
ment that such and such a belief is 
a myth — for example, naturalists pro- 
claim that the ostrich does not bury 
its head in the sand when frightened. 
Another common belief which investiga- 
tion discredits is that the volcano is 
the hottest thing on earth. It isn't. 
In the cement kiln of every day in- 
dustry, heats are attained much hotter 
than that of the molten lava hissing in 
the depths of craters. 

The temperature of the volcano 
Kilauea, Hawaii, said to be the only 
volcano of which the temperature has 
been measured, varies from 1,652 to 
2,192 degrees Fahrenheit. The 
temperature of a modern rotary cement 
kiln averages from 2,500 to 3,000 de- 
grees Fahrenheit — a heat some 800 



degrees higher than that of the vol- 
cano. 

Yet the volcano has been of untold 
benefit to mankind in a way that few 
realize, for it was volcanic ash thrown 
on the earth's surface by the volcano 
Vesuvius that enabled the early Ro- 
mans to make a good cement more 
than two thousand years ago. 

But even in the tremendous heat of 
the cement kiln the pulverized raw ma- 
terials remain unmelted. Instead, the 

fine powder forms into little balls, 
called clinker, which are later ground 

into portland cement. So cement, 
composed of various accurately pro* 
portioned ingredients and burned at 
such a high temperature is a material 
that offers full protection against 
building fires, which ordinarily do not 
reach the temperature of a volcano. 




Looking into a cement kiln, the largest piece of moving machinery in all industry, 

is like looking at the sun. 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Good Sources for News 



NEWSPAPERS interested in con- 
struction facts will find the va- 
rious branch offices of the Portland 
Cement Association, and particularly 
the fieldmen who work under the di- 
rection of these offices, excellent sources 
of information regarding improve- 
ments in their territory. If you are not 
in a city where a branch office is lo- 
cated, you can easily learn from the 
nearest one how to get in touch with 
the fieldman in your locality. You will 
find him well posted on building pro- 
jects, and thoroughly alive to what may 
be expected in the near future. 

During the last few years, many 
newspapers have found information 
about house design and construction of 
such interest to their readers that not 



a few have promoted the construction 
of "model homes." To publications 
interested in setting before their readers 
the latest developments in home de- 
sign — particularly small homes — the 
Portland Cement Association offers an 
excellent service free. Along with this 
is available information about farm im- 
provements, which has shown itself to 
be an interesting feature for publica- 
tions with rural circulation. 

Many publications have attracted 
thousands of dollars' worth of building 
material and farm equipment advertis- 
ing to their pages by featuring news 
of interest to prospective home owners 
and farmers, using as a nucleus the mat 
services offered by the Association. 
These are set forth in detail elsewhere. 



Following are the district offices, and the men in charge: 



Atlanta, Ga., Hurt Bldg., J. M. Mar- 
shall, Jr., Dist. Engineer. 
Birmingham, Ala., Age-Herald Bldg., 

W. C. Ross, Dist. Engineer. 
Boston, Mass., 10 High St., L. T. C. 

Loring, Dist. Engineer. 
Chicago, 111., 33 W. Grand Ave., L. S. 

Trainor, Dist. Engineer. 
Columbus, Ohio. 1 6 E. Broad St., R. L. 

Brown, Dist. Engineer. 
Dallas, Tex., Athletic Club Bldg., C. A. 

Clark, Dist. Engineer. 
Denver, Colo., Ideal Bldg., P. F. 

Meade, Dist. Engineer. 
Des Moines, Iowa, Hubbell Bldg., W. 

H. Steiner, Dist. Engineer. 
Detroit, Mich., Dime Bank Bldg., O. 

O. Stone, Dist. Engineer. 
Indianapolis, Ind., Merchants Bank 

Bldg., L. C. Miller, Dist. Engineer. 
Jacksonville, Fla., Graham Bldg., W. R. 

Macatee, Dist. Engineer. 
Kansas City, Mo., Gloyd Bldg., R. M. 

Simrall, Dist. Engineer. 
Lincoln, Neb., 321 Terminal Bldg., D. 

D. Price, Dist. Engineer. 
Los Angeles, Calif., 548 S. Spring St., 

Amos H. Potts, Dist. Engineer. 
Milwaukee, Wis.. 1st Wis. Natl. Bank 

Bldg., L. S. Brodd, Dist. Engr. 
Minneapolis, Minn., Metropolitan Bk. 
Bldg., F. S. Altman, Dist. Engr. 



Nashville. Tenn., Cotton States Bldg., 
F. M. Whitfield, Dist. Engineer. 

New Orleans, La., Hibernia Bank Bldg., 
W. D. Steward, Dist. Engineer. 

New York, N. Y., 347 Madison Ave., 
B. H. Wait, Manager Eastern 

Offices. 
Oklahoma City. Okla., First Natl. Bank 

Bldg., B. E. Clark, Dist. Engineer. 
Parkersburg, W. Va., Union Trust 

Bldg., J. H. Riddle, Dist. Engineer. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 1315 Walnut Street, 

L. N. Whitcraft, Dist. Engineer. 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Jenkins Arcade Bldg., 

R. S. Taggart, Dist. Engineer. 
Portland, Oreg., Gasco Bldg., C. B. 

Nims, Dist. Engineer. 
Richmond, Va., 904 E. Main St., J. E. 

Tate, Dist. Engineer. 
Salt Lake City, Utah, McCornick Bldg., 

F. H. Richardson, Dist. Engineer. 
San Francisco, Calif., 785 Market St., 

A. P. Denton, Dist. Engineer. 
Seattle, Wash., Seaboard Bldg., H. M. 

Hadley, Dist. Engineer. 
St. Louis. Mo., Syndicate Trust Bldg., 

H. E. Freeh, Dist. Engineer. 
Vancouver, B. C, Birks Bldg., A. E. 

Foreman, Dist. Engineer. 
Washington, D. C, Union Trust Bldg.. 

G. A. Ricker, Dist. Engineer. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



E 



ar 




Romans Experimented with Concrete 



TWO thousand years ago the Ro- 
man builders were not only 
extensive users of cement bul also were 
interested in obtaining better concrete 
through experimentation. 

In viewing the foundations of the 
Forum structures as they stand today, 
the observer finds proof that the early 
craftsmen were not in accord as re- 
garded the use of coarse aggregate, 
the broken stones they mixed with 
cement, sand and water to form con- 
crete. In the effort to secure a better 
concrete some Roman builders laid the 
concrete in layers, alternate layers be- 
ing made with different stones. Others 
preferred to mix the different kinds of 
rocks together and the concrete was 
dumped in the forms in one mass with- 
out distinction as to layers. This is 
the method used by builders of the 
present day. 

Yet with their unscientifically 
manufactured cement, made from vol- 
canic ash and lime obtained from burnt 
marble, and their haphazard mixing 
methods, the ancient Romans built 
concrete foundations which appear to 
be as sturdy today as they were dur- 
ing the life-time of Julius Caesar. 




Even the grain of _ the wood used as forms is still discernible 
although this concrete was made by the Romans 

more than twenty centuries ago. 



The question is frequently asked: 
"Why did not the Romans utilize ce- 
ment in building high structures ?" 
The answer is simple. The Romans 
had no knowledge of reinforcing con- 
crete and consequently cement was 
chiefly used in foundations and as 
mortar. 

Ancient Concrete Still Good 

But they did understand unrein- 
forced concrete, for an examination of 
the foundations of the Forum buildings 

shows that the concrete is still without 
a crack or a fracture. The markings 
from the grain of the wood forms are 
as plainly visible as though the im- 
print was made yesterday rather than 
over 2,000 years ago. 

Famous old world structures in 
which concrete was used are the 
Pantheon, Coliseum, Temple of 
Romulus, Palace of Augustus, Temple 
of Julius, and Arch of Titus. 

Vesuvius Helped Romans 

The Romans made their cement by 
mixing slaked lime with ashes de- 
posited by Vesuvius and other less 
famous volcanoes. So without the aid 
of the laboratories of the present day 

the Romans made ce- 
ment which served 
their purpose well, 
even though their 
product was not at 
all uniform. The 
cement of the Ro- 
mans also had the 
desirable character- 
istic of modern ce- 
ment in that it would 
harden under water 
a quality highly es- 
sential to modern 
building. 

Yet after a 1 1 
there is a wide gulf 



6 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 




The concrete foundation of the Temple of Julius completed 29 B. C, is still as sturdy 

as when first built. 



between the cement of early Rome and 
the product which is used so extensively 
today. After the fall of the Roman 
empire cement making, along with a 
good many other arts, disappeared for 
a time and was not revived until the 
middle of the eighteenth century. But 
after its rediscovery the changes in 
manufacturing methods came about 
rapidly until the present highly scien- 
tific cement was developed. 

Aspdin Invents Portland Cement 

A cement which would harden under 
water was created by John Smeaton 
in 1756. This hydraulic cement was 
used by Smeaton in building the first 
satisfactory foundation for the Edy- 
stone lighthouse off the coast of Eng- 
land. Smeaton's product was improved 
at various times by later experimenters 
but it was not until 1 824 that port- 
land cement was invented. Joseph 
Aspdin, a stone mason of Leeds, 
England, discovered that a better ce- 



ment could be made by powdering, 
burning and grinding the materials 
proportioned by himself rather than by 
using the ready-made materials pro- 
vided by nature. 

Aspdin called his product "port- 
land cement" because of its resem- 
blance, when made into concrete, to 
stone from the Isle of Portland, a build- 
ing stone used in such structures as 
Westminster Abbey. 

But even Aspdin's product was un- 
scientific. His cement was developed 
through guess work rather than through 
exact laboratory calculations. How- 
ever, he discovered the principle which 
was later taken advantage of by manu- 
facturers, who developed modern 
Portland cement. Although portland 
cement had its origin in Europe, the 
United States is the cement capital of 
the world. The 92 manufacturers of 
Portland cement in this country make 
more of this product than all the rest 
of the world combined. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



7 



Modern Concrete Stronger Than Ear 

Roman Product 




CONCRETE placed in rough 
wooden forms by the Romans 
two thousand years ago in foundations 
served its purpose well. However, re- 
cent comparative tests have shown that 
modern concrete is from four to seven 
times stronger than the concrete of the 
ancients. 

Concrete from the castle of St. 
Angelo, Rome, tested at Lewis Insti- 
tute, Chicago, showed a compressive 
strength of 900 pounds per square 
inch. That is, a pressure of 900 



modern 
by the 




Two-thousand year old concrete from the founda- 
tion of the Castle of St. Angelo, Rome, 
which withstood a pressure of 900 
pounds per square inch. 



pounds to the square inch was required 
in order to break up cubes of it. At 
the same time concrete was tested from 
Wacker Drive, Chicago, a double 
decked driveway now under construc- 
tion. This concrete when only 28 days 
old withstood a pressure of 4,000 
pounds per square inch. Since con- 
crete grows stronger with age, it wi 
doubtless attain much greater strength 
eventually. 

The high quality of the 
product is further illustrated 

strength of concrete taken from 
the 27-year old bulkhead wall 
in the Delaware River. The 
average compressive strength for 
exposed concrete was 5,780 
pounds per square inch while 
concrete from below the tide 
level showed an average strength 
of 6,280 pounds. 

The much higher strength of 
modern concrete is attributed to 
better cement and to the better 
mixing and handling methods 
evolved through scientific study. 



"Portland Cement" Not a Trade Name 



ALTHOUGH Irish potatoes are 
known throughout the world as a 
type of potato, many people still have 
the mistaken belief that portland ce- 
ment is the name of one particular 
brand of cement manufactured by a 
single company. On the contrary, 
portland cement is the name of a kind 
of cement which distinguishes it from 
rubber cement, natural cement or other 
cementing materials, and which is 
manufactured by different companies in 
practically all important countries. 

In the United States alone there are 
141 portland cement plants located in 



29 states. Each manufacturer desig- 
nates his product with his own trade 
name in addition to the name "port- 
land cement" or "cement." 

When the portland cement industry 
was in its infancy some torty years ago, 
each manufacturer made portland ce- 
ment according to his own idea or those 
of his customers. Good and indifferent 
portland cements appeared on the mar- 
ket then much the same as good and 
indifferent vegetables or diamonds are 
placed on the market today. In I 898 
a compilation was made of 91 different 
specifications for portland cement. 



8 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Specifications Standardized 

This situation does not exist today. 
Cooperation between the American 
Society for Testing Materials, the U. 
S. Bureau of Standards and others 
brought about uniform requirements. 
After exacting experiments and study, 
a single set of specifications was estab- 



lished in the United States in 1921. 
All portland cement in this country is 
now manufactured in accordance with 
these specifications and the builder is 
assured material meeting them, regard- 
less of the name of the manufacturer 
which appears on the sack above the 
words "portland cement. 



The Story of Cement in America 



ALTHOUGH cement had its 
origin and early development in 
Europe, the United States is the port- 
land cement capital of the world. This 
country, with a yearly production large 
enough to provide every man, woman 
and child here with a barrel and a 
third of cement, manufactures and 
uses more of this product than the rest 
of the world combined. 

Until the first portland cement was 
made in this country in 1872 by David 
O. Saylor, in the now famous Lehigh 
Valley district of Pennsylvania, all 
portland cement was imported from 
Europe. But even after Saylor demon- 
strated that just as good cement could 
be made in the United States as in 
Europe, builders continued to use the 
foreign product in comparatively great 
quantities. 

First Cement Not Scientific 

Saylor, a maker of natural cement, 
began his experiments in portland 
cement manufacture by carrying buckets 
of rocks which he burned in his kitchen. 
John K. Shinn, another Pennsylvanian, 
also saw the possibilities of manufac- 
turing portland cement so he likewise 
created a portland cement by means of 
make-shift machinery. Thomas Millen 
decided that $9. 1 2 was too much to 
pay for the imported portland cement 
which he converted into concrete pipe. 
After preliminary experimenting Millen 
manufactured the first portland cement 
in Indiana, in 1 876. 



Foreign portland cement and domes- 
tic natural cement were long great 
competitors of the American made 
Portlands. So great was this compe- 
tition, in fact, that many companies 
fell by the wayside. Finally the 
superior American product gained a 
strong foothold and now every part of 
the country has its own adequate sup- 
ply of this building material. How- 
ever, it was not until 1897 that the 
use of American cement exceeded the 
importations from Europe. 

So well has the superiority of the 
American product been demonstrated 
that at present the imports are only 
about two per cent of the domestic 
production. 

Production Greater Than Demand 

With a total capital investment of 
about $500,000,000, 141 portland 
cement plants are now in operation in 
this country with an annual capacity at 
least one-fourth greater than the record 
year's demand. These plants are now 
capable of manufacturing approxi- 
mately 200,000,000 barrels of cement 
a year. In 1925 some 161,000,000 
barrels were made with the nation s 
builders actually using 5,000,000 bar- 
rels less, or 156,000,000 barrels. 

Portland cement is now made in 29 
states, the largest producers being 
Pennsylvania, Indiana, California, 
Michigan, Missouri, New York, and 
Illinois. The map on the inside back 
cover shows the location of all plants. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



How Portland Cement Is Mad 



e 



ALTHOUGH a material that 
builds great dams, bridges, sky- 
scrapers and other structures requiring 
tremendous strength, portland cement is 
made up of the tiniest particles, finer 
than flour or talcum powder. More 
than eighty operations are necessary in 
manufacturing this highly scientific 
cement, a product which is as carefully 
prepared and tested as most foodstuffs. 

In kilns that are hotter than vol- 
canos, the powdered raw materials are 
burned until glass-hard balls the size 
of marbles are formed. These balls, 
called clinker, then pass through grind- 
ing mills that reduce them to flour. 
This pulverized material is now port- 
land cement, a powder so fine that at 
least 78 per cent of it will pass through 
a bronze sieve having 40,000 holes to 
the square inch. 

Portland cement is manufactured 



from various combinations of rocks such 
as limestone and clay or shale, cement 
rock and limestone, limestone and 
blast furnace slag, and marl and clay. 
The essential ingredients in these rocks, 
lime, silica and alumina, are accurately 
proportioned and only after numerous 
careful tests. 

From Boulders to Powder 

In quarrying, the first step in the 
manufacture of portland cement, it is 
not uncommon for 100,000 tons of 
stone to be torn loose with a single 
charge of high explosives. From the 
quarry the raw materials are carried to 
the giant crushers which easily break 
rocks as large as hogsheads into frag- 
ments. These fragments then pass 
through secondary crushers which crush 
the material into still smaller pieces. 
At this point the various raw materials 
are usually combined and the mass goes 




A portland cement plant as it looks from the clouds. The structures of a single plant 

contain machinery weighing thousands of tons. 



10 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



through a group of mills where it is 
converted into a gray powder. 

Kilns 250 Feet Long 

Following this, the powder is placed 
in the upper end of the huge fire-brick 
lined kilns, horizontal steel tubes, 125 
to 250 feet long, which resemble 
factory chimneys. As the kiln revolves 
the raw material gradually comes in 
contact with a jet of flame from 30 to 
40 feet in length blown into the dis- 
charge end of the kiln. This mammoth 
blow torch is fed with powdered coal, 
oil, or gas. The resultant heat of from 
2,500 to 3.000 degrees Fahrenheit — 
enough to melt steel — brings the cement 
material nearly to the melting point. 
Here the chemical and physical changes 
take place which give the product its 
cementing qualities. 

The raw material in the form of 
cement clinker then passes to the 
cooler. The clinker may then be 
ground into cement or may be stored 
until needed. Before the final grinding 
gypsum is added in order to control 
the rate of setting or hardening when 
the cement is used in making concrete. 

Fill Sacks Through Bottoms 

From the pulverizers the cement goes 
to the storage bins to await sacking. 
Here again time saving methods and 
machinery have been adopted. Even 
the sacks are tied before filling. The 
sacks are filled through the bottom by 
means of a flap valve which closes 
when the sack is placed right side up. 
For the convenience of the user each 
sack contains 94 pounds of cement, or 
one cubic foot. 

There is a touch of mystery about 
the modern cement plant since so much 
of the hard labor is performed by time 
and labor saving machinery. From the 
moment the material is dumped into 
the crusher until it is sacked, the pro- 
duct is as untouched by hands as the 
bread of the modern bakery. Belt 
conveyors and screw conveyors, the 



powerful rock crushers, the gigantic 
kilns, the massive pulverizers, all re- 
duce the number of workmen. Only 
through the development of such labor 
and time saving machinery could 
cement be economically produced. 

One-Third of Raw Materials Lost 

Of these modern machines used in 
Portland cement making the kiln is 
without doubt the most interesting. In 
this fiery furnace one-third, and often- 
times more, of the raw material passes 
off as a useless gas. A modern rotary 
kiln will burn a ton of coal every fif- 
teen minutes, an average of 100 to 1 65 
pounds of coal per barrel of cement 
produced. The cement kiln is the 
largest piece of revolving machinery 
used in any industry. 

Another machine of great importance 
in cement manufacture is the tube mill 
in which the clinker is pulverized. This 
mill contains a charge of steel balls 
which may weigh as much as a steel 
freight car. As the tube mill rotates 
the steel balls fall back upon the 
clinker, pulverizing it so finely that it 

is soft to the touch. 

Power requirements of the cement 
industry afford a good indication of the 
complex nature of its manufacturing 
operations. In power installed, the ce- 
ment industry ranks tenth among all 
manufacturing industries. 

Each portland cement plant has 
chemical and physical laboratories. 
Tests are run frequently throughout 
the entire process of manufacture. Be- 
fore shipment, a complete set of tests is 
made on the finished product in order 
to further assure the builder that the 
cement meets the strength requirements. 
Portland cement is sold to meet the 
specifications of the American Society 
for Testing Materials. Only manu- 
facturing companies meeting these 
specifications are eligible to member- 
ship in the Portland Cement Associa- 
tion, the educational and promotional 
organization of the industry. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



11 



USE OF PORTLAND CEIV 

(Computed from U. S. Bureau of 

Use of Portland 
Cement per Capita 
State ( in barrels) 

Alabama 0.86 

Arizona . | .03 

Arkansas 0.43 

California 3.06 

Colorado - 1.13 

Connecticut , 1.14 

Delaware 1 .72 

District of Columbia 1.86 

Florida 3.24 

Georgia 0.46 

Idaho 0.52 

Illinois 2.06 

Indiana | ,62 

Iowa | t 07 

Kansas 1 ,23 

Kentucky 0.72 

Louisiana . 0.58 

Maine 0.43 

Maryland 1.39 

Massachusetts 0.82 

Michigan . . . . , 2.32 

Minnesota 1.35 

Mississippi 0.32 

Missouri 1.61 

Montana 0.37 

Nebraska 1 .23 

Nevada . . 1.31 

New Hampshire . . . 0.94 

New Jersey 2.0 1 

New Mexico 0.47 

New York ^ 1.64 

North Carolina 1 .09 

North Dakota 0.49 

Ohio 1.48 

Oklahoma 1.06 

Oregon . 1.56 

Pennsylvania 1 .59 

Rhode Island . . . 1.04 

South Carolina 0.48 

South Dakota 0.69 

Tennessee 0.67 

Texas 0.82 

Utah 0.77 

Vermont 0.6 1 

Virginia 0.67 

Washington 1.67 

West Virginia 0.94 

Wisconsin 1.43 

Wyoming 1.01 



Mines Reports for 1925) 



Rank in 

Use per 

Capita 

31 

27 

46 

2 
22 
21 

7 

6 

I 
45 
41 

4 

10 
24 
20 
35 
40 
47 
16 
32 

3 

17 
49 
I I 
48 
19 
18 
29 

5 
44 

9 
23 
42 
14 
25 
13 
12 
26 
43 
36 
37 
33 
34 
39 
38 

8 
30 
15 
28 



Per Cent Total 

Shipments 

Used by Each State 

1.35 

0.27 
0.50 
7.86 
0.73 

1.12 

0.26 

0.59 

2.61 

0.90 

0.16 

9.17 

3.17 

1.71 

1.43 

1.14 
0.70 
0.21 
1.37 
2.16 
6.12 
2.20 
0.37 
3.56 
0.15 
1.07 
0.06 
0.27 
4.50 
0.12 
I 1.70 
1.93 
0.22 
5.97 

1.52 
0.84 
9.45 
0.45 
0.55 
0.30 
1.04 
2.67 
0.24 
0.14 
1.05 
1.57 
0.96 
2.55 
0.14 



Rank in 


Total Used 


21 


39 


34 


4 


30 


23 


40 


32 


11 


28 


44 


3 


9 


16 


19 


22 


31 


43 


20 


14 


5 


13 


36 


8 


45 


24 


49 


38 


7 


48 


1 


15 


42 


6 


18 


29 


2 


35 


33 


37 


26 


10 


41 


47 


25 


17 


n 


12 


46 



12 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



United States Leads In Cement Making 



THE portland cement mills of the 
United States produced 161,- 

202,000 barrels, or 644,808,000 

sacks of cement during 1925, according 
to reports issued by the United States 
Bureau of Mines. This is more than 
the production of all the rest of the 
world combined. 

The extensive development of the 
Portland cement industry in the United 
States is best illustrated by the capacity 
of the 141 plants now in operation. 
The yearly capacity of these plants is 
estimated to be 200,000,000 barrels, 
or 27 per cent more than the greatest 
year's demand. In other words, 
American mills can produce one-fourth 
more cement than they have ever 
shipped to users in a year. 

One of the chief reasons for the 
cement leadership attained by the 
United States is the wide distribution 



of cement making materials. Every 
populous section of the country is now 
within a short hauling distance of a 
cement plant. 

If the electricity required in supply- 
ing the power needed in making cement 
were to be paid for at average house- 
hold rates, this one cost of power per 
barrel would alone amount to more 
than the price now charged for cement 
at the mill. So the development of 
time and labor saving machinery has 
made it possible to supply this highly 
manufactured material for about half- 
a-cent a pound. 

The same demand for speed and 
efficiency which has placed the United 
States at the top as an industrial nation 
has likewise affected to a great degree 
the volume of building with cement. 
No other building material is used in as 
many ways as cement. 



PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS AND STOCKS OF 



PORTLAND CEMENT IN THE U. S. 

(Statistics from U. S. Geological Survey and U. S. Bureau 



Year 



Production 
( Barrels) 

82.000 
335,500 
990,324 



Shipments 
(Barrels I 



1870-1879 

1890 

1895 . . . 

1900 8,482,020 

1905 35,246,812 

1910 76,549,951 

1911 78,528,637 

1912 82,438,096 

1913 92,097,131 

1914 88.230,170 

1915 85,914.907 

1916 . 91,521,198 

1917 . 92.814.202 

1918 71.081,663 

1919 80,777,935 

1920 100,023,245 

1921 98.842,049 

1922 I 14.789,984 

1923 137.460.238 

1924 ... 149.358,000 

1925* 161.202.000 

•I inures foi 1 '2 5 arc j iarv and su\ 



75,547,829 
85,012,556 
88,689,377 
86.437,956 
86.891.681 
94.552,296 
90,703,474 

70,915,508 
85,612,899 

96,31 1,719 
95,507,147 
I 17,701,216 
135,912,1 18 
146.048.000 
156,724,000 

to revisioi 



of Mines) 

Stock on Hand 

at End of Year 

(Barrels) 



10,385.789 
7,81 1,329 
I 1,220,328 
12,773,463 
I 1.462,525 

8,360,552 
10,353.838 
10,451,044 

5,256,900 

8,833,067 
12,192,567 

9.267.238 
10.900.370 
14,123,000 
18.429,000 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



13 



The Portland Cement Association 










In order to better carry on the research and promotional duties of the ce 

the Portland Cement Association built its own concrete home in Ch 

shown here just before it received the finishing touches. 



ment industry, 
icago. 



THE recently completed home of 
the Portland Cement Association, 
Chicago, is a reinforced concrete struc- 
ture built strictly in accordance with the 
scientific methods developed in the re- 
search laboratory maintained by the 
Association. Construction was carried 
on throughout the winter. 

This new building, five stones in 
height, is faced with cut concrete stone. 
In the interior, use is made of concrete 
art marble and plastered areas illus- 
trating various decorative possibilities 
of portland cement. 

The new building serves as a yard 
stick in measuring the progress of the 
Portland Cement Association, which 
was organized 24 years ago. From the 
first small gathering has developed the 



its 
to 



present nation-wide association with 
three-fold purpose — to educate, 
promote, and to investigate. 

The Portland Cement Association 
is one of the few trade or service as- 
sociations which has found it necessary 
and economical to "own its own home/' 
From the first single paid secretary the 
Association has grown until it now has 
470 employees, of whom about 320 
are experienced engineers. The Re- 
search Laboratory, with a staff of 40, 
has been operated in cooperation with 
Lewis Institute, Chicago, but it is now 
housed in the new building, with the 
1 20 employees of the general office. 

Cement has hundreds of uses. It is 
therefore the gigantic task of the Port- 



14 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



land Cement Association to lead in 
standardizing methods in using cement, 
to advise the user in regard to the best 
methods, to make thorough research in 
devising new and better methods and 
to promote the use of concrete where 
it is adaptable. 

To facilitate this work the myriad 
duties are divided among the various 
bureaus of the association where trained 
men give the latest information on the 
use of cement, whether it be for a stucco 
house, a concrete incinerator, a pave- 
ment or a swimming pool. 



Has 31 District Offices 

In addition, the Association main- 
tains 31 district offices which are scat- 
tered throughout the country at con- 
venient points. Numerous fieldmen 
circulating from the district offices meet 
cement users, and through personal con- 
tact the builder may obtain direct 
assistance in solving his problems. 
Since these men are experienced in 
concrete work, they give much prac- 
tical aid. 



The field representatives frequently 
call on contractors, public officials, 
engineers, architects and civic organi- 
zations. By means of this intercourse 
much of the direct promotional work 
is accomplished. Through this close 
contact the district offices have also 
been responsible for higher quality con- 
crete in pavements and structures. 

Manufacturer and User Benefited 

Another function of the Portland 
Cement Association is to give the mem- 
ber companies assistance in their cement 
manufacturing problems, thereby pro- 
viding for a more economical production 
which in turn benefits the user. 

One of the most notable accomplish- 
ments of the Association is the reduction 
of accidents which has resulted from 
the work of the Accident Prevention 
Bureau. By careful analysis of ac- 
cident causes and through the applica- 
tion of preventive measures, mishaps in 
the cement industry have been reduced 
45.2 per cent since 1920. Two plants 
have each operated for 1 ^3 years 
without a single lost time accident. 




ston 

Milwaukee^ petro_^ _ _ i , 

tK ".T'ewYork 

7iF bu tf!ifliladdphia 
Richffiond 



acksonvifle 



Map showing office* of the Portland Cement Association 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



15 



Association Has Own Laboratory 



THE use of a pint too much mixing 
water in making a batch of con- 
crete is equivalent in weakening effect 
to leaving out two pounds of cement. 
This is one of the many important facts 
discovered at the laboratory of the 
Portland Cement Association. 

Since portland cement is such an 
easy material to use and since for that 
reason it is very often misused, the Port- 
land Cement Association cooperated 
with Lewis Institute, Chicago, in found- 
ing the Structural Materials Research 
Laboratory. Here defi- 
nite methods of con- 
crete making have been 
evolved and even the 
small user may obtain 
first class concrete by 
following the compara- 
tively simple suggestions 
advocated by the labora- 
tory. 

Make Thousands of 

Tests 

Every little detail that 
may have a bearing on 
concrete making is 
thoroughly investigated 
at the laboratory and no 
conclusions are pre- 
sented to the public un- 
til each theory has been 
proved. More than 45,000 tests were 
made in 1925 by the staff of forty. 
The results of these investigations are 
made known through newspapers, bulle- 
tins, magazine articles, lectures and 
through the work of the d ; strict offices 
and fieldmen of the association. 

This Research Laboratory, under 
the leadership of Professor Duff A. 
Abrams, is the only laboratory in the 
country devoted exclusively to the study 
of cement and concrete. It was organ- 
ized in 1916 at Lewis Institute where 
concrete research had been in progress 
for two years. It now has quarters at 
the Association's new home. 



The most important spread of knowl- 
edge has been accomplished through 
the Association's field force which 
comes in close contact with builders, 
engineers and contractors. In this 
way building in the United States has 
been immeasurably benefited. 

The information is given out to the 
public without charge. The true bene- 
fit of this work lies in the increased use 
of cement which has come about 
through the greater popularity of con- 
crete in building, a condition due 




This testing machine at the Research Laboratory of the 

Portland Cement Association is capable of applying 

a pressure of 100 tons. The concrete cylinder 

shown under test withstood mora than 

55 tons pressure. 



largely to improved methods, 

A Mite of Highway Free 

Some of the studies made at the 
laboratory are: The effect of size and 
grading of aggregate, the changes in 
quality of concrete resulting from 
variations in the amount of cement 
used, and the effect of different foreign 
materials in concrete. The discovery 
that too much mixing water weakens 
concrete has had far reaching effect in 
producing a higher quality product. 

The practical application of the 
laboratory findings is demonstrated by 
their use in building a western concrete 



16 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



highway. On this particular job the 
highway engineers had been discarding 
about one-third of the stone aggregate 
because of its small size. An associa- 
tion fieldman, through the aid of 
laboratory experiments, found that ex- 
cellent concrete could be made by mix- 
ing this waste aggregate with larger 
stones. The saving on this job was 
$30,000, enough to build an additional 
mile of concrete highway. 



Laboratories conducted by most 
industries are not for the direct benefit 
of the user but are for the purpose of 
discovering trade secrets which are 
either patented or used exclusively by 
a single firm. On the other hand, the 
Association's Research Laboratory is 
conducted for the benefit of both the 
manufacturer and the user, the find- 
ings being disseminated to all who are 
interested. The small user is especially 
benefited by such a policy. 



How Portland Cement Is Used 

(Reprinted from "Concrete" for May. 1926) 

RECENT estimates indicate that which represent small sales, represent 

the portland cement shipments of nearly a third of the total shipments. 

156,724,000 barrels in 1925 Were Uses PerCent 

used in approximately the percentages ^buSdm^ ommercial 2 60 

shown in the table below. While Houses '(exclusive' of rural) .' 8!5 

it is impossible to gather the necessary Sidewalks and private drive- 
data on which to base highly accurate ways (exclusive of rural). 5.5 
estimates, these figures will serve to in- Small town and farm use f ■ ■ ,80 

i. .1 | f . Concrete pipe ror water, 

dicate the relative importance of the sewers, irrigation and cul- 

various fields of use. verts 4.5 

The high rate of operations in the Paving and highways 2 7.5 

building industry is reflected in the Railways ...... 5.5 

c 1 ..n i ,. Bridges, river and harbor 

quantity of cement assigned to Public work| dams and water 

and Commercial buildings, which power projects, storage 

classification includes hotels and apart- tanks and reservoirs .... 3.0 

ment buildings. The great popularity Miscellaneous uses 1.5 

of concrete roads and streets is seen in 100.0 

the total estimated use in that field. While the more spectacular concrete 

which also makes allowance for cement structures, such as huge dams and great 

required in the concrete bases of other bridges, individually call for consid- 

types of paving. erable quantities of cement, their num- 

Miscellaneous small town and farm ber is so small comparatively that they 

uses account for a surprisingly large constitute a much less important factor 

percentage of the total. This and the in the total demand for cement than 

two preceding classifications, all of the more commonplace classes of work. 



The average tire wear in traveling 
over 1,000 miles of bitulithic pave- 
ment is 1.07 pounds of rubber and on 
1,000 miles of concrete 0.609 pounds 
are worn away, according to recent 
tests conducted by Washington State 
College. Tests show that the cost of 



a tire comes to about $10 a pound for 
the rubber worn away by the time the 
tire must be discarded. At this rate 
the tire cost for each 1 ,000 miles on 
concrete would be $6.09 and on bituli- 
thic $10.70. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



17 



Cement Industry Conducts School 



TEACHING the consumer to 
economize in the use of cement 
may be said to be the educational policy 
of the manufacturers of portland ce- 
ment. 

The educational and promotional 
organization of the industry, the Port- 
land Cement Association, conducts 
short courses in various cities in the 
effort to acquaint builders, engineers, 
architects and others, with the latest in- 
formation on making concrete. This, 
of course, rrieans that the required 
strength may be obtained more 
economically than formerly, since 
stronger concrete results from applying 
the latest knowledge in making it as 
well as from the use of cement. The 
use of proper methods saves the builder 
money. 

In so far as possible, these short 
courses in "design and control of con- 
crete mixtures" are conducted in cities 
and districts demanding them. These 
schools usually cover a period of two 
weeks with eight meetings of three 
hours each. The effectiveness of this 
work is illustrated by a recent course 
in Pittsburgh where 497 trained men 
completed the outlined work. 



OOIS 

Some centuries ago, it took a hun- 
dred or even two hundred years for a 
new mechanical device or a new method 
to become popular throughout the civil- 
ized world. 

By means of the concrete short 

course, those interested in construction 

have at their disposal knowledge that 

has only recently been discovered in the 

Association or governmental labora- 
tories. 



Hurries Up Use of New Method* 

For instance, the water-ratio method 
which was developed only a short time 
ago, is now the common property of 
engineers. The up-to-date builder no 
longer mixes his concrete in a hap- 
hazard fashion. He knows just how 
great a strain his concrete must stand. 
So by using the water-ratio method, he 
is able to make concrete of the strength 
desired for any particular project. 

Application of this principle in- 
volves nothing more complicated than 
accurate control of the amount of mix- 
ing water, since the strength of the con- 
crete is dependent upon the quantity of 
water in the mix in proportion to the 




Hundreds of men interested in design and construction attend the short courses conducted 

by the Portland Cement Association throughout the country. 



18 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



amount of cement. Even a pint too 
much of mixing water will weaken the 
concrete as much as though two or 
three pounds of cement had been re- 
moved from the batch. Accordingly, 
scientists have worked out specifications 
whereby the required concrete strength 
may be quite accurately obtained 



simply by controlling the amount of 

water. 

So through the teaching of the water- 
ratio method and of the proper use of 
aggregate in these "concrete schools" 
the Portland Cement Association has 
been able to secure better and wider 
use of concrete. 



Cement Makers Reduce Accidents 



THE greatest reduction in accidents 
known to any industry has been 
accomplished by the portland cement 
manufacturers through mechanical 
safety appliances and by educating the 
workmen to believe that "the best safety 
device is the careful man." 

In 1925, accidents to cement 
workers decreased 32 per cent from 
the 1924 rate. In 1924 the reduction 
from 1923 was 18 per cent. Great 
progress has been made in lessening 
both the number of accidents and the 
time lost by workmen on account of ac- 
cidents. 

Reduce Accidents by Two-Thirds 

The special no accident campaign 
conducted in June, 1925, gave a re- 
duction in mishaps by two-thirds, as 
compared with the number of accidents 
in June, 1924. The time lost through 
accidents was lessened by 65 per cent. 
According to the committee in charge 
of this work for the Association, the 
June drive really continued throughout 
the year, resulting in a big reduction for 

1925. 

Another no accident month cam- 
paign will be conducted in 1926, with 
emphasis again being laid on the man 
rather than on safety devices, which 



Since portland cement is used in 
more types of structures than any other 
building material and since it is used so 
extensively, it is now generally regarded 
as an excellent construction barometer. 

Cement is used by the builder 
probably within two weeks of the time 



after all are largely dependent upon 
the workman's judgment. This cam- 
paign will be carried on through safety 
lectures, display of safety bulletins, 
distribution of buttons, and charts 
posted daily showing progress made in 
avoiding accidents. 

Co Year Without Mishap 

Most cement manufacturers carry on 
a similar although less intensive cam- 
paign throughout the year. In 1925, 
for instance, two plants operated the 
entire year without a single time lost 
accident. 

Since 90 per cent or so of all port- 
land cement manufacturers belong to 
the Portland Cement Association, the 
promotional and research organization 
of the industry, the accident preven- 
tion work for the industry has been 
carried on effectively through a special 
bureau and an accident prevention com- 
mittee. The bureau of accident pre- 
vention is in charge of a manager who 
collects and distributes data from all 
member companies. Consequently any 
member company may make early use 
of the experiences of other members. 
In addition many worth while sugges- 
tions are made by the committee and 
accident bureau manager. 



it leaves the mills, on the average. 
Consequently, cement manufacturers 
must fill their huge storage bins during 
the slack winter months in order to meet 
the spring and summer demands 
promptly. Cement shipments indicate 
the activity of the building field. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



19 



Forecast Strength of Concrete 



"LJCW does concrete harden?" is 
1 1 in itself a simple question. But 
most people in answering this query 
would declare that concrete hardens 
through drying. Likewise when the 
question is asked as to how paint forms 
a protective coating the answer will 
nearly always be that paint hardens 
as it drys. 

However, both paint and concrete 
become of material value, not through 
drying, but through chemical actions 
which take place within the paint or 
the concrete itself. 

This fallacy in regard to the set- 
ting or hardening of concrete has led 
many to believe that the amount of 
mixing water used in making concrete 
is unimportant. In reality the amount 
of mixing water controls the strength 
of the concrete, in fact, so much so that 
scientists have recently worked out 
specifications whereby the strength of 
the material may be pre-determined 
simply by regulating the amount of 
water as compared to the quantity of 
cement. 

Too Much Water Weakens Concrete 

Consequently when water is hap- 
hazardly poured into the concrete mix 
along with the portland cement, and 
fine and coarse aggregate, good concrete 
will be largely a matter of chance. 
Imagine a cook carelessly dumping 
dipperfuls of water into his bread 
batch! Yet this is comparable to the 
way some people make concrete. 

The pre-determination of concrete 
strengths through the use of varying 
amounts of water is known as the water- 
ratio method. Professor Duff A. 
Abrams of the Portland Cement As- 
sociation Research Laboratory super- 
vised hundreds of thousands of tests 
before final specifications were issued. 
These of course require that the 
aggregates be sound and durable and 
that the mix be plastic and workable. 



Otherwise the strength of the concrete 
is determined by the proportion of mix- 
ing water to cement. 

Water Ratio Coming Into Use 

Among others, these noteworthy 
structures were built with the water- 
ratio method: the Big Four Railway 
bridge near Sidney, Ohio; the Uiver- 
sity of Pittsburgh stadium; and the 
anchorages of the Camden-Philadelphia 
bridge. The Portland Cement As- 
sociation on May 1 this year moved 
into its own home in Chicago, a struc- 
ture built in accordance with similar 
specifications. 

Concrete investigators have shown 
that under the water-ratio plan, uniform 
strength is assured, regardless of 
changes of workability or in the sizes 
of the aggregates. In other words the 
strength of the concrete is definitely 
known and a uniform concrete strength 
throughout a single structure may be 
obtained. 

For ordinary work, the proper 
amount of water to use in making con- 
crete is the smallest quantity which will 
give a mix of good workability. 
Builders in general should use as "dry" 
a mix as practicable. 

Mixing Time important 

Another important point in the mak- 
ing of concrete is the thorough mixing 
of the materials. Concrete should be 
allowed to remain in the mixer for at 
least a minute. Most state highway 
commissions require at least a minute 
and a half for mixing. The speed of 
mixing is not so important as the time 
of mixing, for the materials must be 
thoroughly blended to form a good 
concrete. 

Dusty or dirty sand or gravel or 
crushed stone aggregates will not make 
a strong concrete. The sand and 
pebbles must often be washed as well 
as screened to get rid of clay and or- 



20 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



ganic material. Organic impurities are 
especially harmful, as they rob the 
cement of much of its strength. 

Although concrete should be mixed 
and placed in the forms as dry as pos- 
sible, it requires frequent moistening to 
cure it properly. In highway building, 



for instance, a new concrete road is 
flooded with water for 1 to 14 days, 
or is kept moist by a covering of damp 
earth or straw. 

Yet, after all, good concrete mak- 
ing is as easy, and surely as desirable, 
as good bread making. 



Is It a Cement or a Concrete Walk? 



WHAT is the difference between 
a cement walk and a concrete 
walk? Although a cement walk and 
a concrete walk are the same thing, 
many people still find this a vexing 
question oftentimes asked by a youth- 
ful member of the family. 

Cement, a short term for "portland 
cement," is a highly manufactured 
powder, which when mixed with water, 
sand, and stone or pebbles, will form 
a mass rivaling rock in texture, 
strength and durability. In fact, this 
mass, commonly called concrete, is so 
strong that when forcibly broken the 
pieces of stone will be split open, in- 
stead of the cement's relaxing its hold 

on them. 

Portland cement was so named by 
Joseph Aspdin, its inventor, who noted 
its resemblance to stone from the Isle 
of Portland, England, which was used 
in such structures as Westminster 
Abbey. So by no stretch of the 
imagination may the name "portland 
cement" be attributed to Portland, 
Me., or Portland, Oreg., although 
some cement is manufactured near the 
latter city. 

"Portland" Not a Trade Name 

The appellation "portland" is ap- 



plied to this particular cement to dis- 
tinguish it from natural cement — a 
cement made from materials already 
mixed by nature in proportions which 
are rarely exact. The production of 
natural cement is now only about one 
per cent of that of portland cement, 
which was originally developed by the 
early manufacturers of natural cement. 
Portland cement is manufactured all 
over the world by many different com- 
panies, each of which uses its own trade 
name in conjunction with the name of 
the product, "portland cement." In 
the United States portland cement is 
manufactured in accordance with 
specifications established by the Ameri- 
can Society of Testing Materials and 
the United States Bureau of Standards. 

Portland cement is composed of a 
number of ingredients which are chem- 
ically united through heating at a tem- 
perature approaching 3,000 degrees 
Fahrenheit. Cement must be ground 
finer than flour since 78 per cent of it 
must pass through a sieve of 40,000 
holes per square inch in order to com- 
ply with the government specifications. 

So a cement walk is a concrete walk. 
Although both terms are much used, 
"concrete" is to be preferred. 



A concrete boulevard 75 feet wide 
and seven miles long is being contructed 
by Los Angeles in order to accommo- 
date the ever increasing motor vehicle 
traffic. Pico Boulevard is to be fitted 



with an eight inch concrete pavement. 
The latest types of sanitary sewers, 
storm drains, and ornamental lights 
will make this street one of the most 
modern in the world. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



21 



Supplies Needed by the Portland 



Cement Industry in 



a 



Y 



ear 



MOKE than a third 01 the weight 
of the raw materials used in port- 
land cement making is driven off in the 
form of gases by the high kiln tempera- 
ture. Consequently more than 600 
pounds of raw materials are needed to 
manufacture i barrel ol cement weigh- 
ing 376 pounds. In addition som 
200 pounds of coal, or equivalent fuel, 
needed to turn out a single barrel. 
I he estimates given below of ma 
terials required by tin- portland cement 
industry of the United States in I 92 
are based upon preliminary report, of 
production and ihipments issued by 
the United Si, ! fureau ol MilM 

Fuel 

I he various Portland cement plant 
throughout the country burr I I l, r >00. 
000 tons of coal during the 1925 
manufacturing season. Of this amount 

8,000,000 tons were pulverized for 

burning in the cement kiln The ce- 
ment industry is the larfi t user of 
powdered coal. 

More than 5. 500.000,000 <„!>.< 
feet of gas were also consumed in ce 
ment mill operationi lail year, while 
fuel oil to the extent f 400.000 
barrels was required. 

Sacks 

To replace the cloth sacks lost or 
destroyed last year would require a 
•>trip of cloth 30 inches wide and long 
enough to reach from San Francisco to 
New York Citv just seventeen times. 
Most of the 250.000.000 sack, in use 
ire of cotton although some are of 
jute. 

The use of paper bags for cement 
shipping increased last year with a to- 
tal of 77.000.000 In making these 
bags, about 3 3.000.000 pounds of 
paper were required. 

About 58.001' miles of wire were 



needed for tying the cloth sack, filled 
with cement last year. 

Lubricants 

lo keep the gigantn cc it m mil 
lacturing machinery in y d condition, 

more than 44.000.000 | in d, of 
lubricating oil and grea used in 

1925 

Belting 

lie< ausc ol the Ik- tv v dem mdi m e 
in power trai nil rod in belt con 

veymg, about 417 mil.-- ol belting we 
worn out in cemenl null opeia'i n 

Power 

I he cement industry ml V nil 

among .ill industries in the total I < 
wer <,f the machinery in u I h 

powei installation needed t a *gl< 

large plant prodlM CI /h elc v 

to pupply a < v ol 100,000 >J «t , 
with power » I ht'Jit 



Expl 



ontvmt 



More Khan I8 f 000 000 | 

high plotrvei m e used I vear i 

M i \[ loose the rock i i ning I 

several i nent making ingre I en 

G ypMum 

Abort 600.000 tons ot not 

i 

were ground up with cen 

clinker to control the rate of hardenm- 
"f the cement when n le into cr 

Fire Br,ch 

In lining tl cement ki ich ar- 

heated to a temperature of from 250 
to )000 dear , Fahrenheit. lpproxi 
mately 6.200.1 10 fire br.ck mt \ 

last year 

Shipping 

The portland cement industry is th« 
fourth larger shipper ot maaul ured 
goods according to Inters Com- 

merce Commission figures The cemen' 
produced last year would rill 
eight cars. 



22 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Building in W 



MOST people regard a year as be- 
ing twelve months in length, but 
in the building industry the year has 
been too often shortened to eight 
months. For during the four winter 
months a building taboo apparently 
settles over the country, since new con- 
struction is then only a third or fourth 
of the summer volume. 

However, through the wide diffu- 
sion of knowledge concerning proper 
construction in winter, the amount of 
building during the cold months is 

lowly but surely increasing. For in- 
stance, shipments of portland cement 
were greater by one-fourth in Decem- 
ber of 1925 than in December of 

1924. With some allowance for pos- 
sible differences in weather conditions, 
this is held to indicate a moderate in- 
crease in winter construction. Brad- 
street's survey shows that the value of 
contracts awarded in December 1925. 
is larger by 8.7 per cent than the value 

of December 1 924 contracts. 

Winter Slump a Habit 

The winter slump in building is 
largely a matter of habit. E\en in 
the southern states there is a strong 
tendency for construction to falter from 
November to March. Up until a score 
of years ago building in winter was al- 




Through the observance of simple precautions, building with 
concrete in winter may be as satisfactory as at 

any other time of the year. 



most unknown. At that time the 
builder did not understand how to use 
concrete successfully in winter, a knowl- 
edge that is now necessary for concrete 
enters into practically all forms of con- 
struction. So when methods of ac- 
complishing first class concrete work in 
cold weather were developed, builders 
were slow in taking advantage of them 
because of the winter "let-down" habit 
which has been so long established. 

■ ■ 

Simple precautions permit as satis- 
factory building in winter as in summer. 
The one problem in the use of concrete 
is to keep it warm enough so that it 
will gain specified strength. This has 
been successfully solved by heating 
materials and using canvas enclosures 
and heaters for a few days following 
the placing of concrete in the forms. 

Winter Building Save* Time 

and Money 

The advantages of winter construc- 
tion are manifold. When building 
continues through the winter months, 
the prosperity of the community is 
kept on an even keel, for the buying 
power of an unemployed man is 
greatly decreased. Furthermore, the 
builder benefits directly through lowered 
overhead costs. He is able to keep 
his force of workmen the year round, 

thus avoiding a costly 
reorganization in the 
spring. In addition, the 
cost of labor is less in 
winter and labor ef- 
ficiency is greater. 
Many builders are of 
the opinion that the cost 
of the necessary pre- 
cautions is thus more 
than offset. Then, too, 
the owner profits by sav- 
ing interest on his in- 
vest m e n t since the 
structure comes into pro- 
ductivity earlier. In 
other words, building in 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



23 



winter saves time and money. 

One of the best examples of 
winter construction is the building of an 
extremely large paper mill in northern 
Quebec. Of the 35.000 cubic yards 
of concrete placed for this mill, 
half was deposited in the forms during 
severe freezing weather when tempera- 



tures from 20 to 30 degrees below 
zero were common occurrences. A 
thorough examination has revealed that 
this concrete work is excellent. 

The Portland Cement Association's 
building at Chicago, shown on page 
1 3, is also an interesting example of 
cold weather construction. 



Buying Concrete By 



READY -MIXED, unhardened 
concrete ordered over the tele- 
phone by the user much the same as 
coal, is a picture of the future painted 
by building material dealers. In fact, 
twenty-two cities throughout the United 
States now have in successful operation 
permanent central mixing plants where 
enough concrete for a door step or a 
city street may be purchased. 

This new industry of making and 
selling concrete, like many infant in- 
dustries, was founded in the interest of 
economy. The portable concrete mix- 
ing plant must be moved about from 
job to job, a costly and time losing 
item, as any builder knows. So by 
patronizing the permanent central mix- 
ing plant the builder not only eliminates 
this loss but also the burden of main- 
taining his own plant, including trucks 
for hauling concrete materials. 

Concrete when properly mixed may 
be hauled for at least eight or ten 
miles. Consequently the builder finds 
the permanent central plant economical, 
because of mass production, so long 
as the hauling costs of the finished 
product do not reach too high a figure. 
In the main, cheaper concrete is pro- 
vided in large areas surrounding 
central plants. 

Gives a Uniform Product 

Another favorable feature of the 
permanent central mixing plant is that 
of uniformity and high quality of 
product. Most small mixing outfits 
are not equipped with accurate de- 



Telephone 



vices for measuring the sand, water, 
and stone, which are mixed with ce- 
ment in order to form concrete, and 
considerable care is needed to get a 
uniformly high-grade product. Per- 
manent plants with modern equipment 
and expert management are more 
readily able to turn out concrete 
of a definite quality. Since dif- 
ferent building projects require dif- 
ferent concrete mixtures, the central 
plant is not only prepared to provide 

product, but a uniform 
each particular use as 



a scientific 
product for 
well. 



Inasmuch as concrete is an easy 
material to make it is often abused. A 
tendency exists to use too much mixing 
water since "wet" concrete is easier to 
handle than "dry." Investigation has 
disclosed that for ordinary use, the 
drier the concrete mix, the stronger the 
finished product will be. In order to 
haul concrete without injuring its 
quality it must be of a stiff consistency. 
Consequently it is believed that the in- 
creased use of permanent central mix- 
ing plants will on the whole tend to 
create a still higher quality product. 

Commercial mixing plants now serve 
builders in the following cities: 



Little Rock, Ark. 
San Mateo, Calif. 
Sioux City, la. 
Pittsburgh 
Birmingham 
Des Moines 
Kankakee, 111. 
Danville, III. 
Urbana, 111. 
Calesburg, 111. 
Wood River. 111. 



Bloomington. 111. 

Seattle 

Los Angeles 

Santa Ana, Calif. 

Houston 

Fort Worth 

New Orleans 

Philadelphia 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Indianapolis 

Wichita Falls. Tex. 



24 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Streams Still Get Most of Nation's Sewage 






FOUR-FIFTHS of the sewage of 
all cities in 36 states is dumped 
raw into the nation's waterways, ac- 
cording to a survey conducted recently 
by the Portland Cement Association 
with the cooperation or state sanitary 
engineers. Sanitation experts point out 
that this figure probably holds good 
for the entire United States. 

Of the 91,000,000 people living in 
these 36 states only 16.5 per cent of 
them are served by municipal sewage 
treatment plants — plants which convert 
the vile sewage into an inoffensive 
sludge, valuable as fertilizer. The 
same survey indicates that only about 
half of the population of the 22 states 
reporting is served by sewerage systems. 

Most persons are familiar with sew- 
erage systems and the pipe lines which 
compose them, but they give little 
thought to where these pipe lines carry 
the sewage. As a matter of fact, the 
poisonous sewage has been dumped for 
years into streams where it has in many 
cases destroyed all fish life. These 
streams are so polluted that they are 
unfit for either domestic or industrial 
use. 

Sewage Kills Fish 

At a hearing conducted recently by 
the Wisconsin railroad commission a 
group of men testified that they had 



removed ten tons of dead fish from 
the Flambeau River. How stream 
pollution has affected fish life is further 
evidenced by fishing in the Illinois 
River, where the catch of about 21,- 
000,000 pounds in 1 908 was reduced 
to about 7,000,000 pounds in 1920. 

Harold T. Pulsifier, editor of 
'The Outlook," has stated: "Under 
the genial habit of passing the muck, 
the magnificent Hudson, once a source 
of health, pleasure and profit, has lost 
its right to be called a river and earned 
the more unpleasant title of The Hud- 
son Sewer. 

However, a number of movements 
have been started within the last few 
years to educate the public in regard 
to the unhealthful conditions surround- 
ing improper sewage disposal. A bill 
was passed at the 1925 session of the 
Michigan state legislature requiring all 
incorporated cities to treat their sewage. 
Good examples of sewage treatment 
activity are found in Milwaukee, 
Indianapolis, Baltimore, Houston and 
Chicago. 

Sewage disposal is a vital topic 
which is as pertinent to general wel- 
fare as government control over manu- 
factured foods. 

Proper sewage disposal costs little 
when measured in terms of health. 



Use One Million Tons of Concrete Pipe 



CONCRETE pipe is now used for 
sewers and other purposes by 
practically every city in the United 
States. The total quantity so used in 
1925 would build the equivalent of a 
12-inch pipe line from New York to 
San Francisco and from San Francis- 
co back to Miami. 

t The weight of the concrete used in 
pipe construction last year probably ex- 
ceeded 1,000.000 tons. Three-fourths 



of this concrete was used in the manu- 
facture of sewer pipe. 

Among the many cities using con- 
crete pipe in their storm and sanitary 
sewer systems are Portland, Oreg., 
Milwaukee, Los Angeles, New Or- 
leans, Newark, Houston, Oklahoma 
City, Salt Lake City, Ogden, Omaha, 
New York City, Syracuse, Utica, 
Schenectady and Atlanta* 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



25 



Saving Time With Concrete 



IN the busy loop district of Chicago 
the reinforced concrete frame-work 
and floors of the 12-story Hartman 
Furniture Company building were 
erected in 65 working days — more 
than a story a week. This was done 
in spite of the thousands of pedes- 
trians and automobiles, and the hun- 
dreds of street cars which daily crowd 
around the Hartman corner. 

The building of this structure is 
typical of the rapid construction now 
possible through the use of modern 
concrete building 

methods developed 
within the last decade 
or so. In fact office 
and industrial build- 
ings, homes, dams, 
streets, pavements, 
and other concrete 
structures may be 
built twice as fast to- 
day as they were 1 
or 1 5 years ago. 



Time, of course, is 
one of the most im- 
portant factors to be 
considered in con- 
struction work. 
Rapid construction 
means lessened over- 
head charges and 



also be accomplished with concrete 
tile and concrete block. The large 
size of these masonry units permits 
quick placing since a greater area is 
covered and less mortar is required. 

Just a few years ago it was unusual 
for concrete highway contracts to be 
awarded for more than a mile or so 
at once. In 1910 it took a month to 
build a mile of concrete road. Nowa- 
days contracts are often placed for the 
construction of from 20 to 50 miles 
and pavement may be built twice as 




Th 



lowered building 

costs. Furthermore, the building be- 
comes of value to the owner earlier. 
Cutting building time means cutting 
building expenses. 

Build Fast With Concrete 

Time saving concrete mixing and 
placing machinery is now common. 
Mixers that turn out a cubic yard of 
concrete every two minutes or so are 
universally used. In large projects 
concrete is rapidly carried to the forms 
by elevators and two-wheeled buggies 
or by chutes. Rapid building may 



skeleton and floors of the twelve-story reinforced concrete 
Hartman building, Chicago, were completed in 
sixty-five working days — more than 

a story a week. 



fast — a mile every I 5 days. 



So in addition to 
and beauty, concrete 



its permanence 
also saves time 
and money through quicker building. 



A concrete sewer pipe line recently 
uncovered in Newark, N. J., was found 
to be in excellent condition after 58 
years of service. Concrete pipe sewers 
have been in service in Oshkosh, Wis., 
since 1855 and in Hudson, N. Y 
since 1867. 



26 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 












The 70,000 capacity Ohio State University Stadium at work and at rest 

stadium successfully accommodates 5,200 tons of lively humanity. 



This 



Newspapers May Help Cities 1 ; Get 
Swimming Pools and Stadia 



NEWSPAPER publishers in many 
cases have done much toward 
obtaining municipal, college or high 
school stadia and swimming pools 
for their cities through the cooperation 
given the backers in their news col- 
umns. 

Various cities arc still without these 
recreational facilities, not because the 
necessary money isn't available, but be- 
cause no unified or concentrated effort 
has been made to secure them. The 
newspaper, of course, is best equipped 



for arousing public sentiment. In se- 
curing a stadium or swimming pool the 
community is benefited and the good 
will felt toward the newspaper is ap- 
preciably increased. 

The concrete Sesqui-Centennial Sta- 
dium in Philadelphia, which will be 
completed soon, will seat approximately 
1 00,000 persons the entire popula- 
tion of Utica, New York. On the 
other hand, a recently completed sta- 
dium of 18,500 capacity adequately 
serves Drake University at Des Moines 



Some of the concrete stadia in the United States are as follows: 



Balboa Park. San Diego 
Cornell Crescent 
Grandstand, West Palm Be 
University of Washington 
University of Nebraska 
Terre Haute 

Louisiana State University 
Erie High School 
University of Kentucky 
Centennial. Macon, Ca 



ch 



Centre College 

Franklin Field Stadium. Philadelphia 

University of Pittsburgh 

Scott High School Stadium, Toledo 

University of Iowa 

West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hillv N 

West Point 

Tacoma High School 

University of Washington 

Bmwn Univ*»r*i t v 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



27 



Some of the Concrete Stadia 

Los Angeles Coliseum 
Rose Bowl, Pasadena 
University of California 
University of Denver 
University of Kansas 
University of Illinois 
Harvard University 
Vanderbilt University 



in 



the United States Continued 

Pu rdue University 
Ohio State University 
University of Minnesota 
University of Wisconsin 
Soldiers' Field, Chicago 
Princeton University 
Yale Bowl 

Cincinnati University 




Citi 



ns of Altoona, Pennsylvania, disporting: themselves in the world's largest concrete 

swimming pool. 



Trains May Run on Concrete Roadbed 

(News article from Chicago Daily News, December 21. 1925) 



s 



ANEW age of transportation, 
with crack passenger trains run- 
ning safely at terrific speed on concrete 
roadbeds, was predicted today by 
Frank H. Alfred, Detroit, president of 
the Pere Marquette railway, one of 
forty-three prominent executives from 
all sections of the country attending 
meetings of the American Railway as- 
sociation at the Blackstone Hotel. 

Cars of the new trains are to speed 
on roller bearings. The smooth con- 
crete roadway is to be re-enforced with 
steel trusses. The trains are to run 
almost as fast as airplanes. 

"To the airplane theory, our answer 
is 'safety' M said the president of the 



Pere Marquette. "The new roadbed 
and bearings will give railroad trains 
speed comparable to that of the planes. 
And the superior safety of the rails 
will continue. 

"If it's speed the public wants, we 
can give it to them. By the new sys- 
tem, we can carry people as fast as 
they want to go. 

"After all, we will just be doing 
for the rails what others have done 
already for the highways. When the 
good roads movement started lots of us 
thought gravel would be good enough. 
But the states went farther, and made 
the very safest and fastest roads pos- 
sible. That is what I believe we will 
do with the rails," 




B 



urne 



d Out Astoria Rebuilds 



AFTER a single sleepless night, citi- 
zens of Astoria, Oregon, viewed 40 
acres of smoking timbers and ashes — all 
that remained of the heart of the oldest 
American settlement west of the Mississippi. 

Today, three years after that December 
fire, may be seen block after block of new 
buildings. Of equal importance to this 
rapid and complete rebuilding is the fact 
that Astoria's new business section is per- 
haps as nearly fire-proof as possible* 

Before the fire, Astoria had scarcely a 
fire-resistive building in the downtown sec- 



tion. Records now show that of the ninei 
or so new structures erected since the coi 
flagration, only one is of combustible coi 
struction. The other structures are i 
reinforced concrete. 

Yet modern building was not demande 
by the Astoria building code, for tl 
Astoria code, while more strict than tho 
of many cities, is still far from idea 
Nevertheless, the business men and hon 
builders in the burned out area profited b 
their costly experience and built structur 
far better than those demanded by tl 





ith Buildings That W 




on 



t B 



urn 



>uilding code of their city. 

Quite unlike the pre-fire days, the streets 
of Astoria are also fire-proof. Because 
tof Astoria's location on the tide-flats 
:reated by the Pacific Ocean's backing up 
into the mouth of the Columbia river, 
Astoria has found it necessary to build 
part of her pavements on piling. Prior 
to the fire of 1922 these piles were timbers 
and the pavements were laid on planking, 
Consequently the draughts created by this 
form of construction aided the flames in 
preading. So in rebuilding, the streets 
were made as fire-proof as the structures 



which line them. Concrete piles now sup- 
port concrete pavements and further pro- 
tection is given by concrete fire walls. 

At the time of the fire the city of 
Astoria was generally regarded as "broke" 
because of her huge bonded indebtedness. 
But today, with her 28 blocks of buildings 
not only replaced but safe from another 
such disaster, Astoria bonds are now selling 
at a higher price than they have brought 
for 35 years. It is evident, therefore, that 
Astoria's so-called economy in the past was 
really not economy at all. 




30 



1926 EDITORS REFERENCE BOOK 



Fi 



ire 



L 



osses 



G 



row 



EVERY time a person blinks his 
eyes property valued at $100 or 
more goes up in smoke and flames. 
Such is the extent of fire losses in the 
United States. 

During the last four years fire losses 
have increased tremendously with an 
average yearly loss of more than one- 
half billion dollars. The total fire loss 
for the last 47 years is slightly over 
$ I 2.000.000.000. The average loss 
per year for this period is therefore 
less than half of the annual loss from 

1922 to 1926. 

Two methods are pointed out where- 
by fire losses may be reduced. The 
most obvious is the lessening of care- 
lessness. But since carelessness is as 
inevitable as death or taxes, a more 
prom ng method become- necessary. 
This is the construction of building- 
that will not burn. 

Concrete Withstand* Great Heat* 

Buildings are not regarded as (ire 
safe unless the framework is protected 
with a covering of concrete or other 
fireproofing material, or unless tl 
framework is of reinforced concn 



Since concrete is able to withstand ex- 
tremely high temperatures, ordinary 
building fires, which usually do not go 
above I 800 degrees Fahrenheit, do not 
affect the stability of concrete struc- 
tures. 

Even though the contents of a fire- 
proof structure catch fire, the flames 
are nearly always confined to the on 
structure, and often to a single room. 
Fireproof structures also largely elim- 
inate loss of life since properly con- 
structed concrete beams and girders do 
not collapse. 

The fire situation becomes still more 
alarming when it is realized that thii 
country's per capita loss is about eleven 
times that of the average for all Euro 
pean nations. Furthermore, some I 7. 
000 people are injured each year in 
the United States by flames and the 
annual death toll is 15,000. 

I he estimated fire losses lor the 
last four years are as follows: 

1922 $506,541,001 

1923 . 335.372,782 

1924 . . 549,062,124 

1925 . 540.000.000 

Total . $2. 130.976,640 



Concrete Masonry Building 



Tl 11 use ol concrete building block 
and tile is now so widespread 
bout 600,000.000 wen placed 

American buildings during the last 

reive months. 

Althougl l>uilding io general i- on 

the up ird trend, e increase in the 

I of concrete building unit* indicates 

a measure thai buildings are being 

constructed with permanency and in 

taf more in mind than ever before. 

Numerous fir* tests have been con- 

ducted wi! small structure of concre' 

k or tile, all tests indicating that 

♦ncretr mason- is highly fir' i *- 



tive. Although a temperature ol 1 .801 
degrees F. was obtained in te ting a 
concrete block house in Los Angeles. 
the outside surface of the blocks ft 
mained cool while the fire raged within 
for forty minutes. When cold wati 
from the fire hose was played on the 
inner walls, not a crack appeared 

Winter Building Practical 

1 hat constiuction with cone unit- 

in winter is practical i* proved by 

the experience of numberless northern 

builders. In the winter of l r ^24-25 

lichigan alone used af>out 7.CKH >0 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



31 



concrete block and tile while Minne- 
apolis builders placed 4,000,000 units. 
By using concrete masonry for winter 
construction, much time is saved for the 
units are large and require less mortar. 
Simple precautions make winter con- 
struction as satisfactory as summer 



building. 

In addition to the 600,000,000 con- 
crete block and tile used last year, 
about 300,000,000 concrete brick 
were marketed. Concrete roofing tile 
and architectural stone also enter widely 
into construction. 



Recent Concrete Structures of Interest 



Double Decked Street 

ONE of the greatest double deck 
street projects ever attempted is 
Wacker Drive, Chicago, which is now 
nearing completion. Wacker Drive, in 
which the concrete used will weigh 
about 243,000 tons, marks a new era 
in street construction made necessary by 
the widespread growth of the automo- 
bile. Traffic congestion in Chicago 
will be greatly relieved by the two 
decks which will provide a total of 
14 traffic lanes. 

Tall Buildings 

The Palacio Salvo, a new 28 story 
hotel in Montevideo, Uruguay, South 
America, is the tallest reinforced con- 
crete building in the world. This 
hotel which rises 381 feet above street 
level, is seven stories higher than the 
tallest building of similar construction 
in the United States, the United 
Brethren building in Dayton, Ohio, 
Throughout the United States, how- 
ever, there^are many concrete structures 
of about 20 stories in height. 

Grain Elevator 

A concrete elevator which has a 
capacity of 3,000,000 bushels of 
grain has been erected by the Balti- 
more & Ohio railroad at Baltimore. 
This elevator — probably the largest in 
the world — consists of 1 3 rows of 
seven bins each. Each bin is 1 6 feet 
in diameter and 96 feet deep. Two 
car loads of grain can be stored in 
each of the spaces between the bins. 



Chimney 

The highest concrete structure on 
the American continent is the 409 foot 
chimney recently erected for the Con- 
solidated Mining and Smelting Com- 
pany of Canada. From the 21 -foot 
mouth of the chimney pour the zinc 
smelter gases, which if not carried high 
into the air would destroy nearby 
vegetable life. The structure was com- 
pleted in 1 70 working days. A simi- 
lar chimney is now being constructed 
for the same company. 

Canal Replacement 

In replacing the locks of the 
Welland ship canal between Lake On- 
tario and Lake Erie, 3,381,000 cubic 
yards of concrete will be used, This 
is enough concrete to fill up thirty miles 
of the New York subway. The re- 
placement of the seven locks is more 
than half completed. 

Dam 

Of the several concrete dams of 
notable size built during 1925 the 
Exchequer Dam of the Merced Irriga- 
tion district in California is representa- 
tive. This arch dam is 330 feet in 
height and 955 feet in length. In 
building the structure over 400,000 
cubic yards of concrete were used, 
enough to construct 1 70 miles of con- 
crete road 1 8 feet wide and 8 inches 
thick. 

Water Supply Project 

One of the largest water supply pro- 
jects ever built is the Spavinaw project 



32 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



which supplies Tulsa, Okla.. with pure 
water through the medium of a 53 
mile conduit of four and a half and 
five foot precast concrete pipe ; Tiawah 
tunnel, which is seven feet in diameter 
and two miles long; and Spavinaw 
dam. This dam, which is 3,500 feet 
long and 55 feet high, impounds a 
lake of 20,000,000,000 gallons. 

Bridge 

The Clark's Ferry highway bridge 
over the Susquehanna river near 
Harrisburg, Penna., is 2,074 feet long 
exclusive of approaches. This newly 
completed bridge consists of 1 5 arches 
each with a clear 
span of 127 feet. 



A 



Stadium 

mons the 



note- 



worthy concrete stadia 
is the recently complet- 
ed University of Pitt 
burgh stadium which 
has a seating capacity 
of 70,000 people. 
This gigantic concrete 
and steel structure is 
791 feet long and 60 

eet high. It is planned 
to add another deck to 
the stadium which will 
then be capable of 

eating 100,000 peo- 
ple. Aside from its 
colossal size the Pitts- 
burgh stadium is of 
architectural beauty. 

Sewage Plant 

The largest act- 
ivated sludge treatment 
plant for sewage in 
the world is now under 
construction in Chi- 
cago. This plant will 
serve 800,000 peo- 
ple. The sewage will 
pa^ through three bat- 
teries of aeration tank 
each battery being 420 
feet wide and 700 




feet long. The structures of this sewage 
treatment plant will cover nearly 50 
acres. 

Concrete Track Support 

Because of the continuously wet 
ground in the vicinity of the Chicago 
Union Station, concrete slabs were 
placed under all tracks in the train 
shed, under all approach tracks, and 
underneath platforms. The total area 
of these concrete slabs is 25.6 acres 
the equivalent of a single track slab 
10 feet wide and 21 miles long. 

Bridge Piers 

Bridge piers 229 feet in heigh t — 

probably the highes: 
in the world — 
were recently com- 
pleted by the Yosemite 
Valley Railroad to 
support tracks across 
the reservoir formed 
by the Exchequer 
dam in the San Joa- 
quin Valley, Califor- 
nia. These piers are 
as tall as a 22 story 
office building. 

Wharves 

What is said to be 
the finest wharf in ex- 
istence is the concrete 
wharf at the Inter 
Harbor Navigation 
Canal at New Or- 
leans. This wharf is 
240 feet wide and 
2,400 feet long. New 
Orleans at present is 
engaged in replacing 
the old Army Supply 
Base wharf with a 

2,000 foot 

structure. 
Orleans' 



concrete 



When New 



The highest concrete structure in 

America is this 409-foot chimney, 

recently erected in British 

Columbia. 



program is 
completed the city will 
have nearly two miles 
of wharve most of 
which will be concrete. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



33 




Concrete piers, higher than a 20-story office building, which will support a Yosemite Valley- 
railroad bridge over a reservoir in California. 



Ore Docks 

The concrete iron-ore docks at 
Superior, Wis., constitute one of the 
most extensive ore handling develop- 
ments in the world. The first dock of 
this project was completed in 1911. 
Since that time various extensions have 
been made until the docks now have a 
total length of 4,673 feet. An ex- 
tension recently completed contains 
1 75 bays, each of which has a ca- 
pacity of 700 tons of ore. 



Wide Highways 

Increased motor traffic between De- 
troit and Pontiac, Mich., a distance of 
16 miles, has required the building of 
an 88- foot concrete pavement. One 
44-foot strip has been completed and 
the remaining parallel strip will be 
ready for traffic soon. The counties 
in which Chicago, Detroit and Mil- 
waukee are situated now require that 
all principal pavements be 40 feet wide, 
accommodating four lines of vehicles. 



Lighting the Street 



TURNING night into day is one 
of the mammoth tasks confronting 
American cities. In street lighting 
Chicago has obtained beauty as well 
as durability in the necessary equipment 
through the use of concrete lighting 
standards. This one city alone now 
has more than 20,000 concrete light 
poles. 

Concrete may be molded into light- 
ing standards of simple or ornate de- 
sign. In many cases home owners have 
erected concrete posts in accordance 
with their own individual tastes. Groups 
of business men have also installed these 
distinctive lighting standards in their 
particular business sections. At Coral 



Gables, Fla., concrete lamp posts are 
used by both the city and private home 
owners since the concrete can be molded 
to conform with the Spanish style of 
architecture followed there. 



Many Cities Use Concrete 

A few of the cities using 
lighting standards are as follows: 

Los Angeles, Calif. Pittsburgh. Pa. 
San Bernardino, Cal. 
Racine, Wis. 



Poles 

concrete 



Oshkosh, Wis, 
Aurora, 111. 
Knoxville, Tenn 
Denver, Colorado 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Milwaukee. Wis 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Columbus, O. 
Dallas, Texas 
Pasadena, Calif 
Terre Haute, Ind 
Mason City. Iowa 



Beloit, Wis. 
Fond du Lac. NX is 
Chicago, 111. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Oklahoma City. Okla. 
Riverside, Calif 
Urbana, 111. 
Newark, O. 
Bangor, Me. 
Richmond, Ind. 
Maywood, 111. 
Houston, Tex. 
San Francisco, Calif. 



34 



1926 EDITORS REFERENCE BOOK 



Art in Concrete 



SINCL concrete can be molded 
into almost any conceivable form, 
many builders are finding that art may 
easily be introduced into structures 
built of this material. 

Through the application of -imple 
architectural principles the builders of 
the San Francisco Chronicle building 
have erected a structure of distin- 
guished beauty. Although thil rein- 
forced concrete plant i^ only three 
' nes high with a tower of fi\i lories 
its beautiful Scholastic Gothic lines 
make it as commanding as though it 
were of twenty stories. 



C nme .al building are 



■ 



IK 



easy 

building above 




An i 



c c 



i*»4 by ffa. Sm fr.ix 



not regarded as works of art, A 
glance, however, at the Chronicles 
new home reveals that a new art is 
fast coming into its own. The details 
of the exterior display legends of press 
work, the plaques showing old type 
printing presses, type making, and 
printers 1 devils. All of these intricate 
designs are executed in concrete in 
the form of precast stone. 

Art in Concrete Inexpensive 

1 Ins one structure illustrates how 

and inexpensive it is to hit a 

the mediocre. Art is 
a building as it is in a 
painting since the 
building is exposed 
d.nly to the ga/e of 
countless people. For 
that i on, if for 
no other, the build- 
ing should be made 
attrac h\e as writ as 
vuited to its use. 

Anothrr tyj>e of 

ait in concrete \- il 
lustrated l>v the cloi- 

ed walk of ihe 

I ram r n Mon.r 

Washington! 

1 ). f J Ins arnbu 

laiory it ii called, 

i v roughly 1 1 shaped 

anrj vmII consul of 

I 000 Fed o( con 

C« r wtlk roofrd 

<>\rr with reinforced 

te SUppor I 

* roui t ol 

l>airs. I. .h I, of the 

pai rs ( i f 1 

umns of ea< I, ion 

ers fj the 

g pair in f i 

and i 



ChrNlc w 



• 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



35 




For the convenience of the monks in the 

Franciscan Monastery at Washington, 

D. C, a cloistered walk 1000 feet 

long has been artistically built 

of concrete. 

Get Any Desired Color 

The varied tints in the columns, 
walls, ceilings and floors of the ambu- 
latory are obtained by so combining 
colored stone particles as to get the 
effects desired. By cleaning the ce- 
ment particles from the surface these 
aggregates are exposed and permanent 
coloring results. 

Around the outer edge of the walk 
steel bars are placed in the concrete 
so that the ambulatory also serves as 
a fence. Since the Monks are spend- 
ing their lives within the monastery 
grounds no effort has been spared to 
make this ambulatory attractive. By 
building with concrete the quality of 
permanence has also been economic- 
ally obtained. 

In rebuilding Louisiana State Uni- 
versity, eleven of the most important 
new structures were constructed of re- 
inforced concrete finished with port- 
land cement stucco. These concrete 
buildings, situated on a double quad- 
rangle, compose one of the most pre- 
tentious and beautiful groups of col- 
lege buildings in America. 

Stucco Gives Beautiful Effect 

By utilizing the texture and coloi 



properties of concrete, John J. Earley, 
architectural sculptor of Washington, 
D. C, has given an attractive stucco 
finish to these buildings. In mixing 
stucco the fine aggregates become 
coated with the cement particles. In 
this particular instance Mr. Earley re- 
moved these particles from the surface 
with a steel wire brush, thereby ob- 
taining the desired buff color and 
roughened texture by exposing the 
crushed Potomac river aggregates. 

When concrete is used in the interior 
construction, the work is better de- 
scribed by the term "interior archi- 
tecture" rather than "interior decora- 
tion." The same smooth or rugged 
beauty which marks exterior construc- 
tion may be utilized in the interior 
where permanence is also highly de- 
sirable. 

The Edgewater Beach Hotel, Chi- 
cago, Grauman's Metropolitan The- 
atre, Los Angeles, and the City Club 




This stucco finished water tower shows how 
ordinary structures may easily 

be beautified. 



36 



1926 EDITORS REFERENCE BOOK 



of St. Louis are reprc 
sentati\e of the many 

rtructurei in \n hich con 

crete has been success- 
fully l d in proud * 
uitable interior finish- 
ings. In c uild 4s 
the natural p e ol the 
concr* * iiuated 
pc lifting form 

marks to vary- 
ing degre- utilul 
col« o!> 
tained throut the a] 

pli tion of Id 

pan directly to the 

base. 

Nou f'omhle 

In build | the 
of 1 

J D. 

Mi I irle) iias 

g a fai n 

oi • I , 

la« 
demanded a * na- 

iust ay permanetv ' 

ilU. 

M f K a r I < >d i 

iflg col car 

9otm 1 < 

du »n< Hmilai to 

i v, onf ig a 

W of efl< and colof not obti 
able mota 

(a i 

- 
a*t rnodrU fo» ^ \ 

a?- to bi i ait com [a i on 

•rl m . i M Unc 




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ifttii 



r 



U C 



. 



I 



I Art work lr air Wffll 

i« d I \ I I , of I lir I W at 

Bra Hi 

V ^ i J ff I I 

poai itiet 
in t v I I or.KJ 

untaifi I I inn 

t* !!..it | 

I inlaw I . ,j t<. 

I.* i ■ ii I a 



ptaaafl by 

\ I nj/ 



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u 

■ i 



hgi 

I ii 

Mi [ad i Id 

. f-cj 

I 

^ I 

' 'i art 



heroic (iti 



KM' 




V 



' 



P 

: 

M*nd 



ui ra 



A 



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nd Santa Fe. 



tuck at 

\lchilOU. >- 

• .1 
■ " uatit* die 




• ***»A 





BO<Wn mrthodt in dewgnu.y conciet 
ii oad t n used 

d§ in bu 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



37 



Good Roads Bring Increase in 

Newspaper Circulation 



GOOD roads have brought the 
country nearer the city. A farm- 
er living twenty miles out in the coun- 
try jumps in the family car and in 30 
or 40 minutes he will be at the counter 
of some trading place. That is, if 
the roads are good. 

But this is not the only way in 
which the country is nearer the city. 
Where good roads have been built the 
farmer is kept in touch with the world 
at large, not alone through the radio, 
but through his daily newspaper. 

Motor Deliveries Profitable 

The Indianapolis News has found 
motor deliveries to rural districts highly 
profitable through the increased circu- 
lation and through the higher adver- 
tising rates the advertisers were conse- 
quently willing to pay, according to 
John M. Schmid, circulation manager. 
Mr. Schmid declares that the last sub- 
scriber on a 40 mile rural route re- 
ceives his newspaper at practically the 
same time the last paper is delivered 
in the residential district of Indian- 
apolis. 

Wherever possible the 60 routes of 
the Indianapolis News are confined to 
paved roads in order to give an eco- 
nomical year round service, according 
to Mr. Schmid. 



Mr. Schmid has this to say in re- 
gard to the service which has been in 
operation since March, 1923: "Ad- 
vertisers find favor in the plan as it 
tends to increase the radius of their 
trade. And the paved highways, most 
of which are concrete, make it con- 
venient for customers from many miles 
around to get into the city quickly at 
any time.'* 

Make 54-Mile Trip in Two Hours 

The citzens of Greeley, Colo., a 
city 54 miles from Denver, receive 
their afternoon Denver newspaper at 
the same time it is placed in the hands 
of subscribers in the Denver residential 
section. This feat is accomplished 
daily by motor buses which make the 
trip in two hours over concrete roads. 

The advantages of intensive rural 
circulation are: getting the paper 
quickly into the hands of the sub- 
scriber; serving people that otherwise 
could not be reached; increasing the 
circulation; and the giving of better 
service to the advertiser through this 
increased circulation. 

But it must be remembered that an 
intensive rural delivery service is chiefly 
dependent on paved highways — high- 
ways that give year round service. 



Build Automobiles Faster Than Roads 



WITH motor vehicle registrations 
for the United States showing 
a gain of nearly 14 per cent in 1925 
over the previous year, it is noted that 
paved highway building remained 
practically the same in both years. 

If the 20,000,000 or more trucks 
and touring cars now registered were 
to be placed on both sides of the 39,- 
659 miles of concrete rural highways 
there would be scarcely room for these 



cars to park comfortably. 

About $51,750,000 is saved an- 
nually in Pennsylvania in automobile 
operating costs as the result of the con- 
struction of hard-surfaced roads, ac- 
cording to William H. Connell. an 
executive of the Pennsylvania High- 
way Commission. This saving indi- 
cates that unimproved roads are far 
more expensive than modern pave- 
ments. 



38 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS FOR 1924 AND 1925 

(These figures were taken from MoToR magazine with estimates made for 

December in all cases.) 



State 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut . . . . 

Delaware 

Dist. of Columbia 
Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota .... 
Mississippi .... 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico . . . 
New York ..... 
North Carolina 
North Dakota . . . 

Ohio . 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . 
Rhode Island .... 
South Carolina . 
South Dakota , . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia . . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total 







Per Cent Gain 


1924 


1925 


1925 over 1924 


157,262 


194,580 


23.7 


57,828 


68,597 


18.9 


141,983 


185,503 


30.6 


1.321.480 


1,443.985 


9.3 


213.247 


238.132 


11.7 


214.318 


253,221 


18.1 


35,136 


39,879 


13.5 


91.726 


94,639 


3.1 


194,196 


291,400 


50.1 


209,300 


247,906 


18.4 


69,225 


81,493 


17.7 


1.123.724 


1.266.791 


12.7 


650.219 


719,380 


10.6 


620,906 


662.745 


6.7 


410.891 


456.864 


11.2 


231.784 


260,111 


12.2 


178.000 


208,000 


16.8 


127,178 


138,606 


9.0 


195,581 


242.637 


24.1 


672.315 


764,338 


13.6 


868.787 


992.826 


14.3 


502.987 


569,531 


13.2 


134,547 


176,085 


30.9 


544.635 


604,300 


10.9 


79.695 


95.731 


20.1 


308.713 


336.660 


9.0 


18.387 


21.377 


16.3 


71.929 


81,409 


13.0 


504,190 


579,448 


14.9 


41.750 


48,559 


16.3 


1.375.735 


1,579,031 


14.8 


305.756 


364.177 


19.1 


117.061 


145,530 


24.3 


1.244,000 


1.400,000 


12.5 


342.982 


458.000 


33. £ 


192,629 


215.826 


12.0 


1.228,586 


1.356,919 


10.4 


90,652 


104,648 


15.4 


163,382 


170.673 


4.2 


142.280 


167.291 


17.6 


204.680 


248,021 


21.2 


834.040 


977,572 


17.2 


79,233 


90,3 13 


13.9 


61.179 


69,481 


13.6 


261.643 


298.870 


14.3 


294,812 


341.713 


15.9 


190,134 


213,762 


12.4 


525,221 


592,450 


10.9 


43.639 


47.650 


9.2 




A 


verage 


17.726.507 


20,204.260 


13.9 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



39 




uild Pavements Thicker at th 



e 



Edg 



e 



HEAVILY loaded army trucks 
equipped with solid rubber tires 
driven over 63 sections of various 
types of concrete, brick and asphalt 
paving, brought out the almost revolu- 
tionary fact that pavements should be 
thicker at the edge than in the center. 
The results of these tests conducted on 
the two-mile Bates Experimental Road 
near Springfield, III, in 1921-22 were 
so convincing that at present more than 
30 states are building concrete pave- 
ments of a thicker-at-the-edge design. 
During the first days of pavement 
building pavements were built thicker 
in the center with the belief that more 
traffic used this portion of the road- 
way. However, the growth of auto- 
mobile traffic has changed this one- 
horse chaise method of travel. Mod- 
ern country highways are now two 
and sometimes four traffic lanes wide, 
and heavy trucks commonly run along 
the edges of the pavement. Since the 
subgrade offers least support to the 
pavement along its sides when the soil 
is wet and the concrete slab itself was 
thinnest there on old-style pavements, 
it is not surprising that breaks have 
sometimes occurred at the corners of 



the slabs on such pavements. 



Study Causes of Failures 

In conducting the tests on the ex- 
perimental road the trucks were first 
run over the road beginning with the 
bare chassis and gradually increasing 
the loads carried until they exceeded 
the legal limit of eight tons on the rear 
axle by nearly two-thirds. This traf- 
fic was continued at various speeds 
and under various conditions, while 
close observations were made of the 
sections which failed. 

It was further learned that some 
reinforcing was needed to give the 
edges still more strength to resist the 
tremendous pounding of heavy trucks. 

Of the total of sixty-three sections, 
twenty-two were of brick, seventeen 
asphalt and twenty-four concrete. 
When the tests were finished it was 
found that one brick section (4 Yi per 
cent), three asphalt (\7 2 /j per cent), 
and ten concrete sections (41^4 P er 
cent) had come through without a 
failure. 

Experience and other experiments 
have borne out the results of the Bates 
test road. 



Fed 



era 



1 Aid in Road Building 



DURING the ten years in which 
the Federal Aid Road Act has 
been in effect, the United States gov- 
ernment has assisted the 48 states in 
building 63,000 miles of roadway. 
Through the medium of Federal Aid 
this country now is progressing on the 
best road system in the world. 

Under the Federal Aid system, it 
is required that the important roads of 
each state link up with the important 
highways of the adjoining states. In 
this way, the United States has im- 
proved highways connecting all states 



which in time of war would constitute 
an invaluable military system. 

In order that Federal Aid be dis- 
tributed as widely and fairly as pos- 
sible, not more than three-sevenths of 
the roads are to be primary highways 
of interstate importance. The remain- 
ing four-sevenths are to be secondary 
roads of inter-county importance. 
Under Federal Aid provisions the 
national government does not pay more 
than half of the cost of the road im- 
provements, except in states with pub- 
lic lands. 



40 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 






FEDERAL AID PROJECTS COMPLETED AND UNDER 

CONSTRUCTION TO DECEMBER 31. 1925 

(Compiled from Statistics of 

THE BLREAU OF PUBLIC ROADS) 

of Total ' c of Total 

TYPE Total Cost Cost Mileage Mileage 

Portland Cement 

Concrete $532,550,745.79 43.4 13.498.8 21.4 

Brick 34.423,205.63 2.8 765.8 1.2 

Bituminous Concrete.. 58.313.43 4.34 4.8 1.607.8 2.6 

Bituminous Macadam. 105.953.3 17.02 8.6 3.585.3 5.7 

Waterbound Macadam. 2 5.355.928.61 2.1 1.278.8 2.0 

Gravel 255. 1 38.597.95 20.8 23.356.2 37. 1 

Sand-Clay 40,714.129.35 3.3 5.382.3 8.6 

Graded and Drained. I 1 9.999.35 I .94 9.8 13.370.5 21.2 

Bridges . 54.584.143.34 44 148.5 0.2 

TOTALS $1,227,032,853.97 100.0 62.994.0 100.0 



Concrete Streets Increase 



THE small city i> holding up its end 
in pavement construction, accord- 
ing to an analysis of concrete paving 
made by the Portland Cement Associa- 
tion. Nearly one-fifth of the concrete 
pavement contracts awarded last \ ear 
ere let in cities of 2.500 population 



or less and more than a lourth were 
awarded in cities of between 2.500 and 
I 0.000 citizens. 

The -ur\ey mdicate:> that pa\ement 

onstruction is normally distributed. 

iking into consideration that nearly 90 
per cent of the city dwellers live in 




• I e«t«te a< tti*» 'olio. the construction of 

ptvrmrnti 



and attractive con<r* 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



41 



centers of 1 0,000 population or less. 
It is to be expected that most paving 
is in the larger cities where traffic is 
greater. Fifty-six percent of the 1925 
concrete paving awards were in cities 
of 10,000 or more people. A fifth of 
the contracts were awarded in the 81 
cities of 100,000 population or more. 

For a time concrete rural highway 
paving attracted much more attention 
than city paving. However, since con- 
crete has proved itself an ideal paving 



material for motor traffic, cities have 
widely adopted it and the street yard- 
age is now being increased 2,000 miles 
or more yearly. Concrete is not only 
easy to install but its maintenance cost 
is very low. Another notable feature 
of concrete paving is its low traction 
resistance. Concrete is also skid-proof. 

Concrete pavement awards last year 
totalled 2,026 miles. Following are 
the yardages of concrete paving con- 
tracted for by the 30 largest American 
cities during 1925: 



5 CITIES WITH POPULATION OVER 1,000,000 

CITIES During 1925 

Chicago 541,313 

Detroit 1 6,904 

Los Angeles 2,25 7,147 

New York 1 92,285 

Philadelphia 75,63 I 

3,083,280 



Total to 
Jan. I, 1926 

1,209,608 

622,991 

7,763,589 
793,846 
223,193 

10,613,227 



8 CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 500,000 and 1,000,000 

Baltimore 82,465 893,280 

Boston 10,675 I 14,273 

Buffalo 29,640 90.750 

Cleveland 23,899 308,736 

Milwaukee 343,580 990,889 

Pittsburgh 3,73 7 81,041 

San Francisco I 2,692 I 73,232 

St. Louis . . . I 18,483 2 70,689 

625,171 2,922,890 



17 CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 250,000 and 500,000 



O., 



Cincinnati 
Columbus, 

Denver 

Indianapolis . . . . 
Jersey City .... 
Kansas City, Mo., 

Louisville 

Minneapolis . . . . 
Newark, N. J. ... 
New Orleans . . . . 
Oakland, Cal. . . 
Portland, Oreg. . 
Providence, R. I., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Seattle 

Toledo 

Washington, D. C 



101,438 


314,289 


4,779 


10,949 


28.140 


138,201 


78,837 


436,614 


343,533 


3,082,769 




7,770 


13,323 


337.981 


17,900 


67,280 


18,951 


181,153 




70,258 


222,798 


1.426.438 


4,000 


4.000 


6,000 


26,290 


768,873 


2,970,731 


51,651 


664,21 1 


257,205 


871,019 


1,917,428 


10,609,953 



42 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



A Mile of Concrete Road 



IN building a single mile of con- 
crete road more than 4,000 tons of 
materials are necessary, exclusive of 
water. In other words, two big train 
loads of cement, sand and stone must 
be delivered on the job. 

To some taxpayers, such a mass of 
materials may appear to represent a 
cost that would make a concrete rural 
pavement a luxury rather than an in- 
vestment. However, anyone who has 
studied highway costs knows that 
where traffic is at all heavy the or- 
dinary dirt or gravel road is much 
more expensive than a pavement. 

Pavements Save Money 

For instance, thorough study at the 
Iowa State College Experiment Sta- 
tion has revealed that in driving an 
automobile over a concrete road rather 
than a dirt road an average of 2.6 
cents per car-mile is saved, and pro- 
portional savings are made with trucks. 

If 500 motor vehicles pass over a 
concrete highway daily the yearly sav- 
ing for one mile alone will be $3,600. 
It has been shown that the total cost 
of transportation on a concrete road 




Through modern methods concrete roads are 
three times as fast today as they were 



carrying only 500 motor vehicles a 
day — including all operating costs of 
the cars and interest, depreciation, and 
maintenance of the highway — is about 
$3,600 per mile less than for dirt 
roads and $2,370 less than for gravel. 
Consequently the dirt or gravel road 
is the more expensive yet by no stretch 
of the imagination can such a road be 
called luxurious. 

In converting a gravel or dirt road 
into an 18-foot concrete pavement it 
is necessary to place 2,000 cubic 
yards of concrete for each mile of 
1 8-foot slab seven inches thick. To 
make this concrete 3,400 barrels of 
Portland cement or 1 7 car loads, are 
needed. Thirty-two cars of sand, or 
1,100 cubic yards, and 46 cars of 
crushed stone, or 1,600 cubic yards, 
are mixed with this cement. For mix- 
ing and curing this concrete some 
300,000 gallons of water are re- 
quired. 

Coal and Dynamite Atso Used 

Yet the building of a concrete road 
really begins long before actual work 
is started on the roadbed. Four hun- 
dred pounds of dy- 
namite are needed to 
blast rock in the 
quarry to make 
enough portland ce- 
ment for a mile of 
road. To burn the 
raw cement materi- 
als, 340 tons of coal, 
or its equivalent, are 
used. In order to 
regulate the setting 
time of the cement 
when used in con- 
crete about 1 9 tons 
of gypsum are re- 
quired. Although 

being built two or cement is generally 
is years ago. measured by the 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



43 



barrel it is usually delivered in sacks, 
each of which holds a cubic foot. In 
order to supply cement for a mile of 
concrete road about I 3,600 sacks are 
needed. 

To mold this mass of material into 



a concrete highway would seem to re- 
quire almost superhuman effort. Yet 
the road builder; with his modern 
methods and equipment, is able 
quickly and efficiently to create a 
smooth-riding and lasting pavement. 



Ancient Toll Roads Cost M 
Than Best Roads of Today 



ore 



WHEN Mr. Silas Wickes went 
to market only a half century 
or so ago, it cost him more money to 
travel over the "rough and ready" 
roads of his time than it costs Hiram 
Acres today to travel over the best 
road that can be built. 

Every two or three miles Silas was 
obliged to dig down into his home- 
made jeans and pay the toll man at 
the rate of three cents per mile, that 
I, if Silas were driving a "chariot, 
coach, stage, wagon, phaeton or 
chaise, with two horses and four 
wheels." 

If Silas were riding a horse and 
driving 20 head of cattle it would 
cost him a total of five cents for each 
mile- So in going a distance of 10 
miles with his herd of cattle he would 
be forced to pay 50 cents — a small 
fortune for almost any boy in those 
days. Imagine what proportion ol 
Silas* income went to pay for travel 
ing over a trail of ruts! 

Poor Roads Come High 

The old toll road was never a mat- 
ter of civic or rural pride. In fact, 
these ancient highways were so bad 
that those who used them accepted them 
with a grim forbearance. They were 
really nothing more than rights-of-way 
dotted with mudholes and sunken 
bridges. Yet even with the exorbi- 
tant rates charged for the use of these 
roads, the owners claimed that the re- 
turns did not warrant keeping them in 
good repair. 

So the motorist of the present day 



has much to be thankful for, since it 
costs him about hall as much per mile 
for concrete roads as it cost Silas and 
ins fellowmen lor roads of the wor>l 
sort. I hree cents per mile w the 

cost for traveling with an ordinary v< 
hide on the toll road. Foday i! an 
average of only 500 vehicles pass over 
a mile ot concrete road daily. I lie co^t 
only 1 .6 cent* per mile 

Concrete Maintenance im Low 

For example, tat concrete pave- 
ment costing about $30 f 0< [>er mile. 

At six per cent the yearly int< 
charge on the co>l is $l,<S'lf> I Ke 
sum to be put aside each ye I] to replace 
the pavement at the end of 20 years it 
needed, is $I0I<) Maintenance may 
l>e estimated at $80 a year. The total 
yearly cost ol the mile of pavement 
then $2890. much less than the cost 
of even a good graveled road where 
traffic U at all heavy. 

Even where traffic is light, concrete 
pavement usually cost less than gravel 
roads. According to studies made at 
Iowa State College a concrete pav 
ment with a daily traffic ol 250 ve- 
hicles costs $630 less per mile ear 
year than gravel. 

So today when Hiram Acres i ids 
the nose of his car tow I town he is 
not worried by toll gate he does not 
anticipate being pulled out of mud- 
holes by a pair of mules or a windla 
His sense of satisfaction and comfort 
is so great that he does not reflect at 
all upon the low cost of the smooth 
pavement flying up to meet him. 



44 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Salesmen Travel Cheaper 




Automobile 



IN four years the operating costs of 
automobiles have been reduced more 
than one-third chiefly because of im- 
proved roads, according to figures sup- 
plied in a report of the Dartnell Cor- 
poration, a service organization for 
sales executives. 

In 1920 it cost from 10 to 20 

per cent more to travel by automo- 
bile than by train, states the report 
which was compiled through the as- 
sistance of 1 94 firms using automobiles 
for sales work. In 1 922 it was esti- 
mated that the operating costs of cars 
had been reduced to about the same 
as the cost for train travel when all 
factors were figured in, ten cents per 
mile. 

Good Roads Lower Travel Costs 

However, in 1924 the operating 
cost of the salesman's car had dropped 
to six cents a mile. Considering that 
each salesman's automobile travels 
1 0,000 miles per year, a conservative 



figure, the saving over operating costs 
in 1922 amounted to the astounding 

figure of $2,717,200 for the 6,793 

cars of these 194 firms alone. 

The Dartnell Corporation gives this 
as the reason for lower operating 
costs: "The extended development of 
good concrete roads, and the better 
roads program under way for the 
year, are changing the whole complex- 
ion of the problem of operating sales- 
men with automobiles. We have it on 
authority that improved roads, during 
the last two years, have cut down gaso- 
line mileage and tire costs almost one- 
half in a number of states/* 

Another important development 
noted in the report is the increasing 
tendency for firms to operate their auto- 
mobile sales service the year round. Of 
187 companies, 163 are enabled to use 
their automobiles for the entire twelve 
months because of favorable road con- 
ditions in their territories. 



Concrete Is 



SINCE concrete pavements are hard 
and even, it might seem to follow 
that such pavements would be slippery* 
especially in wet weather. However, 
this is not the case, as motorists are 
well aware, for concrete is practically 
skid-proof. 

The skid-proof quality of concrete 
pavements is best demonstrated by its 
use on steep grades. Horses and 
motors have little trouble pulling loads 
on concrete-paved hills. 

The following representative cities 



Skid-Proof 

have concrete streets on very steep 
grades of the percentages shown: 

Per Cent 

Los Angeles, Calif 29 

Bluefield, W. Va. . . 2S 

Mount Hope, W. Va. 27 

Altoona, Penn 27 

San Francisco, Calif 26V2 

Seattle, Wash. 26 Vi 

Savanna, III 23 

AppaJachia, Va 22 

Patterson, N. J 21 

Hannibal, Mo. 19y 2 

Birmingham, Ala. 19 

Kansas City, Mo. .18 

Little Falls, N. Y 18 

Duluth, Minn 17% 

Council Bluffs. la 17 

El Paso, Tex 17 



The portland cement industry ranks 
third in the size of investment per wage 
earner, according to the figures of the 
U. S. Census of Manufactures. The 



capital investment of the portland ce- 
ment industry today is about $500,- 
000,000. Turnover of capital is slow 
about once in two years. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



45 



GASOLINE TAX AND AUTOMOBILE LICENSE FEE 

In Each State During 1925 



Gas Tax 
STATE " (Cents) 

Alabama 2 

Arizona 3 

Arkansas , . . . 4 

California 2 

Colorado 2 

Connecticut 2 

Delaware . . « . . 2 

Dist. of Columbia 2 

Florida 4 

Georgia 4 

Idaho 2 

Illinois 

Indiana . . . 3 

Iowa 2 

Kansas 2 

Kentucky 5 

Louisiana 2 

Maine 3 

Maryland 2 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 2 

Minnesota 2 

Mississippi 3 

Missouri 2 

Montana . . 2 

Nebraska 2 

Nevada 4 

New Hampshire 2 

New Jersey . 

New Mexico 3 

New York . 

North Carolina 4 

North Dakota I 

Ohio 2 

Oklahoma 3 

Oregon 3 

Pennsylvania 2 

Rhode Island I 

South Carolina 5 

South Dakota . 3 

Tennessee 3 

Texas 1 

Utah 3% 

Vermont 2 

Virginia . 4 1 /£ 

Washington 2 

West Virginia 3 

Wisconsin ... 2 

Wyoming 2% 



Motor Vehicle Fee 
Gas Tax on Dodge 

500 Gallons Touring Car 

$12.75 

5.00 

21.70 

3.00 
4.00 

17.04 

13.10 

1.00 

16.40 

1 1.85 

25.00 

8.00 

6.00 

17.20 

11.50 
19.20 

16.32 
12.70 

7.68 
10.00 
14.85 
21.12 
13.20 
16.50 
15.00 
14.50 

9.90 
I 1.90 

9.60 
10.50 
13.50 
12.50 
15.80 

4.00 
18.00 
34.00 

9.60 
14.20 
15.00 
17.00 
17.52 
17.70 

5.00 
22.95 

14.40 
17.20 
17.20 
14.00 
12.00 



$10 


15 


20 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


20 


20 


10 


15 


10 


10 


25 


10 


15 


10 


10 


10 


15 


10 


10 


10 


20 


10 


15 


20 


5 


10 


15 


15 


10 


5 


25 


15 


15 


5 


17.50 


10 


22.50 


10 


15 


10 


12.50 



Cost of Fee 


Plus Gas Tax on 


500 Gallons 


$22.75 


20.00 


41.70 


13.00 


14.00 


27.04 


23.10 


11.00 


36.40 


31.85 


35.00 


8.00 


21.00 


27.20 


21.50 


44.20 


26.32 


27.70 


t 7.68 


10.00 


24.85 


31.12 


28.20 


26.50 


25.00 


24.50 


29.90 


21.90 


9.60 


25.50 


13.50 


32.50 


20.80 


14.00 


33.00 


49.00 


19.60 


19.20 


40.00 


32.00 


32.52 


22.70 


22.50 


32.95 


36.90 


27.20 


32.20 


24.00 


24.50 



Average 25.62 



46 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 




This Detroit-Pontiac superhighway marks a new era in road building. When a similar 

strip of concrete pavement is completed for northbound traffic, 

the total paved width will be 88 feet. 

Giving the Gasoline Horse 

a Better Road 



WITH 20,000,000 more motor 
vehicles now on the nation's 
roadways than there were twenty years 
ago, it is no wonder that highway 
building has come to be one of the 
country's chief industries. 

In considering that these 20,000,000 
or so vehicles are motorized with some- 
thing like 700,000,000 gasoline horses, 
it is not astounding that the antiquated 
road building methods of only a few 
years ago are being dumped into the 
discard along with divided seats and 
goggles. 

The modern roadway is built for 
the motorist, the fellow who now does, 
or should, pay for the highways. In 
the good old days the rural road was 
built with the idea of furnishing some 
sort of trail from county to county. 
The early rural road received about the 
same care as a drainage ditch. Nowa- 
days the highway is as carefully con- 
structed as a skyscraper. The road is 



now designed with the motorist 
mind. 



in 



One of the chief provisions now be- 
ing made by highway commissions is 
that of wider rural roads, either 
through building them wider or through 
the broadening of existing pavements. 
For instance, unforeseen traffic increases 
have made it necessary to widen the 
Lincoln Highway west of Philadelphia. 
Ultimately a concrete road 40 feet 
wide will extend from Philadelphia to 
Harrisburg, a distance of 85 miles. 

Build Road Edges Thicker 

The other two dimensions of the 
road are being given equal attention by 
state highway departments, A few 
years ago it was customary in building 
a concrete pavement to thicken the 
pavement in the center. Findings from 
road tests have revealed that better 
service is obtained by thickening the 
outer few feet of the pavement since 
the strain is greater at the edge. Most 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



47 



states now have adopted 
concrete road specifica- 
tions calling for a 
thicker-at-the-edge de- 
sign. 

Length of pavement 
is another thing of great 
concern to the motorist. 
In 1909 there was but 
three miles of concrete 
rural highway in the en- 
tire United States, To- 
day the concrete rural 
road mileage has almost 
reached the 40,000 
mile mark. Yet this con- 
siderable mileage would 
scarcely provide com- 
fortable parking place 
for the nation's 
mobiles. 










auto- 



The increased automobile traffic has forced the widening of 

the Boston Post Road until it now accommodates 

four lanes of traffic. Here the fourth lane 

is shown under construction. 



Concrete Mileage Increases 

However, the concrete mileage is 
increasing about 6,000 miles each year. 
During the current season an almost 
unbroken stretch of concrete roadway 
will be completed which will extend 
from a few miles north of Green Bay, 
Wis,, through Chicago and on to To- 
peka, a distance of nearly 1 ,000 miles. 
This one highway is an indication of 
the rural road building of the future. 

Aside from the improved physical 
characteristics of the modern road are 
other features which have been inaugu- 
rated by the road builders for the con- 
venience of the public. Missouri and 
other states are doing their best to 
eliminate the detour by confining new 
highway building to as few of the im- 
portant routes as possible. 

Keep Motorist in Mind 

Another plan adopted by many 
states where no good detours a r e 
available is the building of a concrete 
road half at a time, a method whereby 
traffic may cont-nue throughout con- 
struction. For example, New Jersey 
built the 20-foot Shore Route in two 
ten-foot strips. During the construction 



of the first strip traffic passed over ten- 
foot gravel shoulders at either side of 
the pavement bed. Later when the 
first completed strip of pavement had 
cured properly it was opened to traffic 
along with one of the ten-foot shoulders, 
thus giving a 20-foot roadway. 

Curves on the up-to-date highway 
are no longer dangerous. By widening 
the pavement and by super-elevating 
the outer pavement edge highway 
engineers have taken another big step 
in providing safety and comfort for the 
motorist. The plasticity of concrete 
makes such construction practicable. 

The highway user is getting more 
and more for his money. W. H. Con- 
nell, president of the American Road 
Builders' Association, estimates that 
improved roads save American motor- 
ists $1,630,000,000 annually. Since 
the yearly road bill is about one billion 
dollars, better roads not only pay the 
entire road bill but they save $500,- 

000,000 a year. 

These 700,000,000 gasoline horses 
now loose on the highways will soon 
be increased to 1 ,000,000,000. It is 
the job of the highway builder to pro- 
vide suitable roadways for them. 



48 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Concrete Pavement Upkeep Low 

IN driving over ordinary dirt or In cities the matter of street main- 
grave] road, the motorist may not tenance is being given careful attention, 
realize that the upkeep for this highway, Careful records kept by Beloit, Wis- 
if the traffic borne by it is at all heavy, consin, show that concrete city pave- 
runs into thousands of dollars each ments cost far less than the other two 
year for every single mile. types of pavement in use in that city* 

Many counties have found by actual n f . . • 

experience that it is much cheaper to . Be,olt expended a total of $3,665 

construct pavements which provide J" seven years on an average of 249.- 

year around service. 900 sc ^ are yf rds of a *** of pave- 

Figures compiled by the Minnesota ment othe / , ™ an ft <L°ncrete while an 

State Highway Commission show that avera § e of '05.937 square yards of 

the yearly cost of gravel roads on main con( ; rete cost the Clty on,y $| 22. 

routes is almost twice that of concrete "It isn't the first cost, it's the up- 

roads. Depreciation, interest on in- keep** is a familiar saying, and to no 

vestment, and the upkeep on the con- purchase does it apply with more force 

crete trunk highway No. 3 cost Minne- than to highways. The following 

sota $1,678 per mile. The total cost figures were compiled in New York 

per mile on trunk highway No. 1, a during a four-year period, and they 

gravel road, was $3,101, a difference show clearly what the various types of 

of $1 ,423 for each mile which properly roadways cost from the standpoint of 

should be listed as a loss. maintenance per mile per year: 

Less than 

Average Number of Vehicles per Day 500 500-1000 1000-2000 Over 2000 

Maintenance Cost per Mile Per 
Year of Pavement only for: 

Concrete (first class) $62 $ 54 $ 76 $149 

Brick 165 99 109 279 

Bituminous macadam (cone, base) . . 99 146 146 229 

Bituminous macadam on macadam base ... 375 513 302 544 

Bituminous macadam (penetration) 303 355 409 646 

Waterbound macadam 551 652 692 881 

Gravel 5&4 721 675 824 




The simplicity and beauty of the Key bridge at Washington, D. C, illustrates the tendency 

in modern bridge building. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



49 



TOTAL MILEAGE OF ROADS 
MILEAGE IN FEDERAL AID SYSTEM AND MILEAGE OF 

CONCRETE ROADS IN THE UNITED STATES 



Equivalent Miles Concrete 
Surface 1 8 -Feet Wide 



Total 
Highway 

STATE System 

Alabama 56,55 1 

Arizona 21,400 

Arkansas 71 ,960 

California 70,000 

Colorado 48,000 

Connecticut 12,000 

Delaware 3,800 

District of Columbia .... 

Florida 27,548 

Georgia 80,892 

Idaho 40.200 

Illinois 96,771 

Indiana 70,946 

Iowa 109,1 13 

Kansas 1 24, I 43 

Kentucky 53,000 

Louisiana 40,000 

Maine 23.104 

Maryland 14,810 

Massachusetts 20,525 

Michigan 75,000 

Minnesota . 103,050 

Mississippi 53,000 

Missouri 1 I 1,510 

Montana . . 67,100 

Nebraska 80,272 

Nevada 22,000 

New Hampshire 14,112 

New Jersey 1 7, I 20 

New Mexico 47,607 

New York 81,873 

North Carolina 60,000 

North Dakota 106,202 

Ohio 84,497 

Oklahoma 1 12,698 

Oregon 41,826 

Pennsylvania 90,000 

Rhode Island 2,368 

South Carolina 52,3 I 8 

South Dakota I 15,390 

Tennessee 65,204 

Texas 182,816 

Utah 24,057 

Vermont 14,900 

Virginia 53,338 

Washington 42,428 

West Virginia 3 1,629 

Wisconsin . . 78,800 

Wyoming 46,320 

TOTALS 2,862,198 



Federal Aid 




Total 


System 


Built 


Jan. 1 , 


Mileage 


1925 


1926 


3,872,00 


70 


118.3 


1.498.00 


1 


434.3 


5,007.03 


28 


230.1 


4,467.60 


161 


3.626.9 


3,332.00 


14 


204.6 


835.43 


35 


349.1 


335.43 


63 


418.2 





1 


9.0 


1,901.00 


66 


229.7 


5,557.90 


65 


428.8 


2,768.60 


10 


48.3 


5.002.22 


853 


4,957.5 


4,679.00 


337 


1,872.2 


7,231.00 


64 


600.4 


7,516.00 


32 


516.7 


3,639.95 


82 


232.9 


2,771.00 


7 


36.4 


1,393.46 


3 


68.8 


1.417.48 


120 


1,086.2 


1.308.00 


50 


278.9 


4,768.00 


425 


2,467.2 


6,849.60 


94 


614.2 


3,329.00 


39 


250.9 


7,530.00 


477 


980.2 


4,366.00 





27.0 


5,489.00 


26 


94.8 


1,434.00 


7 


38.4 


977.39 


6 


17.9 


1,198.30 


113 


802.9 


3,250.00 


6 


80.5 


5,012.00 


615 


3,409.2 


3,790.30 


329 


1,170.7 


6,154.00 





7.4 


5,798.50 


210 


1.856.2 


5.573.00 


188 


563.3 


2.814.00 


25 


252.4 


3.670.55 


724 


3.431.2 


234.13 


14 


66.2 


3,150.00 


56 


209.2 


5,666.00 





1.4 


3,180.20 


75 


204.6 


10,932.00 


71 


560.3 


1,588.00 


2 


241.1 


1,043.00 


5 


24.8 


3,075.50 


91 


705.9 


2,907.90 


81 


1,1 10.7 


1,918.50 


68 


637.2 


5,493.36 


152 


2,073.2 


3,071.70 





13.0 


178,797.03 


5,961 


37,659.3 



50 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Missouri Invests in Paved Roads 



ONLY a few years ago Missouri 
wasn't proud of her roads, in 
fact she didn't like to talk about them 
at all. They were almost impassable 
during the rainy seasons, and when the 
sun came out Missouri highways were 
so rough that the life of the average 
automobile was cut in half. 

But today this is all changed. Mis- 
souri is hard at work at the big job 
of building a system of paved roads, 
a system that embraces the entire state. 

In the early fall of 1921 the voters 
authorized a $60,000,000 bond issue 
to be financed with automobile regis- 
stration fees. The program outlined 
called for the hard surfacing and main- 
tenance of 7,640 miles of primary and 
secondary roads, about seven per cent 
of the entire Missouri rural road sys- 
tem. 

Adds Gasoline Tax 

During 1925 a gasoline tax of two 
cents per gallon was placed in effect 
which brought in a revenue of approxi- 
mately $5,000,000. This sum added 
to the $8,000,000 obtained through 
the license fees makes a year's total of 
$1 3,000,000. Consequently it follows 
that Missouri will not only redeem the 
bond issue within a very few years but 



that she will also be able to enlarge 
her already extensive rural highway 
program. 

In 1 920 Missouri had but nine 
miles of concrete rural roads. At the 
close of 1925 she had more than 950 
miles of concrete roads. A few years 
ago Missouri had a scant mileage of 
graveled roads. Today she has hun- 
dreds of miles of graveled highways in 
service, highways which will be paved 
as soon as the program permits. A 
hard surfaced roadway, all of which 
is concrete with the exception of seven 
miles, now reaches from St. Louis to 
Kansas City, a distance of 250 miles. 
So the Missouri method of highway 
financing, simple as it is, has proven 
itself more than a theory. Probably 
by no other means could this state have 
made such great road improvements 
within the short span of five years. 





i 




The end of the pavement — mud ahead. Closing such gaps 

is essential to efficient car operation. 



Increases Road Program 

During the last three years Missouri 
has contracted for the building of $85,- 
000,000 worth of roads and at 
present the state has $35,000,000 
worth of highways under contract. This 
enlarged program is due to Federal 
Aid as well a? the gasoline tax revenue. 



Missouri has a popu- 
lation of 3,500,000 

people. Some of the 
other states with popu- 
lations as large, and a 
few even larger, have 
not equalled Missouri's 
feat in highway build- 
ing. Neither have 
many of these 
formulated 



states 



programs 

which appear as hope- 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



51 



ful for the future, nor as easy for the 
taxpayers- 
Missouri modeled her road finance 
system after that of Illinois. Illinois 
first floated a $60,000,000 bond is- 
sue to be financed solely by automobile 
registration fees. This issue was so 
successful that a few years later an- 
other issue for $100,000,000 was 
voted, likewise to be financed only 
with motor vehicle license money. Il- 
linois has not found it necessary to 
establish a gasoline tax but Missouri, 
with a smaller population, has found 
it advisable to take this step. Illinois 
now has over 5,000 miles of concrete 
rural roads criss-crossing the state and 
is planning the rapid construction of 
5,000 miles more. 

Reduces Detours 

Aside from finances the Missouri 
plan has other unique features. Road 
work is concentrated on as few high- 
ways as possible each year in order 
to lessen detours. Missouri primary 
highways purposely do not pass through 
many of the small towns for the rea- 
son that most traffic is through traffic- 
In the interest of better pavements, 
most of the grading is done some 
months before the pavement is laid in 



order that the subgrade will be packed 
down by traffic. 

Some people view present highway 
building with something akin to alarm. 
However, good roads boosters are 
rapidly increasing for the economies of 
better highways are self-evident. No 
one will question that an automobile 
rides more smoothly and comfortably 
on paved roads. Hinging on this is 
the fact that automobiles cost less to 
run and last longer on pavements. 

Where traffic is at all heavy, good 
roads not only cost the user nothing 
but save him money. Tests conducted 
by state highway departments and 
state colleges throughout the country 
prove conclusively that pleasure cars 
may be run at a saving of at least two 
cents a mile on concrete over gravel 
and that six cents per mile may be 
saved in the operation of a three-ton 
truck. This is a net saving of $20 
per thousand miles for the pleasure car 
and $60 for each thousand miles for 
the truck. In Missouri the tax on 500 
gallons of gasoline plus the average 
registration fee of the car totals about 
$22. The tax collected by the state 
is then paid for through lowered 
operating costs when the automobile 
has run only 1,100 miles. 



H 



orses 



Pull Loads Easier on Concrete 



THAT there is a wide difference in 
surface resistance of the various 
types of roadways is evidenced by late 
tests of the Horse Association of 
America. It is easily seen that more 
power is needed to pull a load on a 
dirt or gravel road but that an actual 
difference exists between the kinds of 
pavements is not so generally known. 

The average results of the large 
number of tests conducted by the Horse 
Association in Chicago show that 



horses must exert a pull of 22 pounds 
per ton to keep a load moving on 
granite block; 18.8 pounds on brick; 
47.3 pounds on asphalt; and only 14.7 
pounds per ton on concrete. 

These tests were made with ordinary 
equipment of 1 6 Chicago firms which 
use horses extensively for trucking. 

Other tests conducted by the Horse 
Association show that it is four times 
harder to start a load on a dirt road 
than on concrete. 



52 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Motor Car and Road Costs 

That concrete paving is most economical is shown by the tables given below, 
which were compiled by the Iowa State College Engineering Experiment Station 
after a long series of tests of various types of road surfacing. The first gives 
auto and truck operating costs: 

Solid-Tire Pneu.-Tire 

Trucks Trucks Automobiles Motorbuses 

10 Miles 15 Miles 25-35 Miles 25 Miles 

per hour per hour per hour per hour 

TYPE OF SURFACE 

Cents per Cents per Cents per Cents per 

Ton Mile Ton Mile Vehicle Mile Bus Mile 

Average portland cement concrete 8.00 830 10.00 24.00 

Average asphalt filled brick 8.00 830 10.00 24.00 

Average asphaltic concrete 8.00 8.30 10.00 24.00 

Average sheet asphalt 8.10 8.30 10.00 24.00 

Bituminous macadam (well maintained) 8.50 830 10.60 25.70 

Waterbound macadam (well maintained) 8.70 8.95 11.10 26.00 

Ordinary gravel 9.00 9.40 11.80 27.80 

Ordinary earth 9.50 9.95 12.60 29,60 

Further investigation showed that for all roads used by as many as 250 
vehicles a day, concrete paving is less costly than dirt- And even when the 
daily average is less than 100; the excess cost of concrete over dirt is but slight. 
Concrete was found to cost less than any other type, paved or unpaved, where 
the daily traffic amounted to 250 vehicles or more. 



Must Consider Total Costs 

By "cost" is meant the total annual cost of transportation in dollars per 
mile, assuming that 90 per cent of vehicles are automobiles, 5 per cent are pneu- 
matic tired trucks and the remaining 5 per cent are solid tired trucks. This total 
cost is obtained by combining the cost of vehicle operation per ton-mile with the 
cost of the highway itself per ton-mile for the traffic passing over it. Results 
are given in the following table, which includes interest depreciation, mainte- 
nance and operating costs for both vehicles and road surfaces: 

Average Number of Vehicles per 

Dav 100 250 500 750 1,000 1,500 2,500 

Average Number of Tons per Day 150 375 745 t,120 1,500 2.250 3,700 

Portland cement concrete 5,760 11,840 21,980 32,130 42,310 58,360 103,070 

Brick 6,190 12,230 22,390 32,530 42,690 62,980 103,430 

Asphaltic concrete 6,080 12,140 22,360 32,490 42,680 62,900 103,480 

Sheet asphalt .... 6,090 12,160 22,400 32,540 42,750 62,010 103,670 

Bituminous macadam 6,810 13,270 24,100 34,920 47,730 69,180 109,970 

Waterbound macadam 6,670 13,680 24,670 35,850 47,040 69,380 114,110 

Ordinary gravel 5,350 12,470 24,350 36,240 48,140 71,920 . 

Ordinary earth 5,320 12,850 25,580 

The investigation upon which the foregoing tables are based brought out 
that the sums paid by motorists in operating cars are the big items in highway 
transportation costs. By comparison, the expenditures of tax money by public 
officials are small. On main highways the car operating expense is from 20 to 60 
times the cost of building and maintaining the road. 

The Iowa tabulations show that an average of 1,000 vehicles daily over 
a gravel road represents an annual investment in road costs and automobile 
operation of $48, 1 1 5 per mile* Similar transportation over a concrete pave- 
ment costs the public $39,625, a saving of $8,490. Where traffic amounts to 
500 vehicles a day, concrete pavements save $4,950 per mile. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



53 



Tire Wear Less on Concrete 



AUTOMOBILE tires wear out 
seventeen times faster on good 
macadam and fifty-six tim:s faster on 
very poor macadam roads than on con- 
crete pavements, according to tests 
conducted by Washington State col- 
lege. 

Touring cars were run over maca- 
dam and concrete road surfaces at dif- 
ferent speeds. The amount of wear 
was determined by carefully weighing 
the tires before and after each run. It 
was found in running the automobiles 
over identical distances that the value 
of the rubber worn off on concrete was 
$0.98, on good macadam under Wash- 
ington conditions, $16.72 and on poor 
macadam the loss was $56.72. 

The cost of tires and gasoline for an 
average 4-cylinder car driven on a 
concrete road, as brought forth in the 
tests, is $12.80 for 1,000 miles. On 



a good macadam road it would be 
$35 for 1,000 miles. The reduced 
cost of driving on concrete is, according 
to these figures, 2.23 cents per car 
mile for tires and gasoline alone, 
reckoning the gasoline at 25 cents a 
gallon. 

Estimates showed that in Washing- 
ton the concrete roads cost $501 per 
mile a year more than macadam, con- 
sidering investment, upkeep, interest, 
and salvage value at the end of its use- 
ful life. If it cost each car using a 
road 2.23 cents less to drive a mile 
on concrete than on macadam it will 
require a traffic of 22,480 cars a year, 
or only 62 cars a day over a road to 
earn this $501 differential. In other 
words, if a highway carries more than 
62 cars a day the reduced costs in 
gasoline and tires alone make a concrete 
road actually cheaper for the user than 
a macadam pavement. 



Stabilizing Advertisin 




A GLANCE through any progres- 
sive newspaper will show that 
there is an increasing tendency toward 
segregation of both news and advertis- 
ing matter. In fact, many daily news- 
papers keep their income on an even 
keel by grouping advertisements in cer- 
tain fields. For instance, the radio 
page may be run Monday, the house 
furnishings page Tuesday, the building 
page Wednesday and so on. 

By so doing the attention of the 
reader is directed to solid pages of ma- 
terial that interests him. He is not 
required to search through the entire 
paper to find a desired item. Further- 
more, advertising is stimulated, not so 
much through competition as through 
the enlarged market created by concen- 
trated advertising. 

The success of the building page 



has been so pronounced that editors 
have applied the same principles with 
excellent results to the promotion of 
other special pages such as fire pre- 
vention and good roads pages. 

In order to conduct successful 
building, pages and similar pages it is of 
course necessary to provide interesting 
features to accompany the advertising 
matter. For the building page the 
Portland Cement Association will 
furnish free of charge a series of house 
plan mats and a group of home im- 
provement mats. This material along 
with local building news will provide 
a strong building page background. 

Early in October of each year fire 
prevention week is observed throughout 
the country. Last year several hun- 
dred newspapers availed themselves of 
the information contained in the model 



54 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



fire prevention page prepared by the 
Publications Bureau of the Association, 
Many newspapers also made use of the 
model good roads section prepared by 
this bureau for the observance of good 
roads week which is held yearly each 
January* Model pages will be supplied 



again this year, illustrating both appro- 
priate advertising and news content. 
So with very little trouble and ex- 
pense, features may be added or im- 
proved that not only increase reader 
interest but stimulate advertising as 
well. 



Newspapers Build Model Homes 



THE building of model homes has 
been found by many newspaper 
publishers to be not only profitable to 
them but to be of real help to the com- 

■ 

munity. 

These newspapers have built model 
homes recently: The Topeka Daily 
Capital, the Boston Post, the Omaha 
Bee, the Syracuse Herald, the Lincoln 
Daily Journal, the Detroit News, the 
New York Herald-Tribune, the Al- 
bany Times-Union, the Minneapolis 
Journal, the Chicago Da ly News, the 
Springfield, Ohio, Daily News, and the 
Joplin Globe. The Birmingham News 
and the Indianapolis News went a step 
farther, the former erecting four and 
the latter five model concrete homes. 

Publishers have discovered that not 
only does the erection of a model 
home accelerate home building but 
that also steady advertising is appre- 




The building of this model home by the Topeka Daily Capital 
proved a profitable investment. After its erection 

home building greatly increased. 



ciably stimulated. 

After the promotion of the model 
home by the Joplin Globe, building per- 
mits in four months were increased 
nearly three and a half times in num- 
ber and thirteen and a half times in 
value over the permits of the corre- 
sponding four months of the previous 
year. 

In building a model home the desire 
is to obtain a beautiful and substantial 
house which at the same time is econom- 
ical. Consequently concrete has been 
utilized extensively in such structures. 

Ordinary concrete block or tile 
finished with portland cement stucco 
offer a wide range of attractive archi- 
tectural effects, and that is the type 
usually chosen. 

The newspaper need have no trouble 
in financing a model home. Oftentimes 
real estate or building firms are more 

than glad to handle the 
construction for the 
publicity value of such 
work and in the hope 
that other homes may be 
erected and sold, for 
one good house leads to 
another. 



Another method of 
model home financing 
open to the publisher is 
that of securing a buyer 
for the house at the 
price advertised so lib- 
erally in the news ar- 
ticles before construction 
is started. 



ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



55 



Beautiful — Permanent 



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A PICTURESQUE SUBURBAN HOME 

Merton E. Granger, Architect, Syracuse, N. Y. 



HERE is an American suburban 
residence built at Bellevue 
Hills near Syracuse, N. Y., that is 
beautiful to look upon, constructed 
of permanent materials, and is fire 
resistive. Its plan, too, is unusually 
well suited to the requirements of 
the average modern family. 

The general contour of the house 
is reminiscent of the Dutch Colonial, 
although the sharp roof lines, half- 
timbered gables and small window 
openings of many panes are clearly 



of English origin. 

The walls are of concrete ma- 
sonry surfaced with portland cement 
stucco. Continuous air space be- 
tween the walls and interior plaster 
insures insulation from heat in sum- 
mer and cold in winter. 

The floor plan is interesting. The 
large living room has a cozy fire- 
place and adjoins an enclosed porch 
or sun room. The dining room and 
cheery breakfast room are con- 
venient to the well-equipped kitchen. 



(Twenty house plans* similar to the above except that they are furnished in 
three-column mat form, will be mailed free to newspaper editors upon request 
These newspaper screen half-tones give an excellent reproduction.) 



56 



1926 EDITOR'S REFERENCE BOOK 



Free Mat Service 

NEWSPAPERS with country and small city circulation will find the Port- 
land Cement Association's free mat service most helpful. It offers a series 
of thirteen short, illustrated features on home improvements that put money in 
the pocket of the property owner. The specimen reproduced here is full width. 



Every Farm Home Can Have Bathroom 
By Installing Efficient Septic Tan\ 



What woman, who has enjoyed 
the comforts of modern plumbing 
in her home f would willingly go 
4>ack to a house lacking such con- 
veniences? 

Not one in a hundred. Nor is it 
necessary, for any home, regardless 
of its location, can have the same 
sanitary conveniences formerly 
thought possible only in city homes. 

Hot and cold running water and 
well-equipped bathrooms have be- 
come as much of a necessity in 



best in contact with air, do this 
work. The liquid finally is dis- 
charged from the distributing sys- 
tem practically harmless. 

When it is considered that more 
than 35 communicable diseases are 
directly traceable to untreated sew- 
age, the need for such treatment is 
apparent. 

Any local contractor can build a 
septic tank and guarantee its oper- 
ation. The size of tanks vary with 
the size of the family, the smallest 




farm homes as they have in city 
homes. The reason has been the 
installation of a septic tank which 
safely and efficiently disposes of 
household wastes. 

In such an installatio n, sh 
the drawing, the^afi>---^^^fork 
to the tank wtf^J^t gUG Into a tile 

em where any ob- 
lonaole contents are destroyed. 
Certain other bacteria, which work 



Details of Construction 
for Septic Tank. 



practical size being one for a fam- 
ily of five persons. Usually t 
are built of concret 
a permanent \f&~^firmxGxi to help 

stall an efficient 
. em. Tn^addition, the editor of 
this newspaper will, upon request, 
give information as to where work- 
ing drawings and complete infor- 
mation about concrete septic tanks 
may be obtained free of eost. 







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INDUSTRIES